Topic: Literature Review Outline

Literature Review Outline

As you compose your literature review outline, keep in mind the expectations of a well-structured and organized piece of writing.

For this assignment, draw on your readings to create an appropriate outline of your research topic. (The abuse of animals in relation to adolescent criminal behavior and adolescent identity development)

Refer to the outline of the literature review in your Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches text, page 47 to create an outline for your final course project.

Provide one paragraph for each of the following five sections.

1. Introduce the problem, include the theoretical framework, and conclude with your research question(s).

2. List and describe the independent variable(s).

3. List and describe the dependent variable(s).

4. Predict how and why the dependent variable depends on the independent variable using your theoretical framework,

5. Summarize why your question will fill a gap in the existing scientific knowledge and, based on your theory, what results you expect to find.


Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.




Literature Review Outline






Literature review Outline

  1. Introduction to the problem
  2. Most of the adolescents involved in the criminal behaviors have a history of abusing animals.
  3. Ascione (2001) explained that the abuse of the animals by adolescents could be used as a predictor of the development of criminal behavior among the adolescents.
  4. Psychologists argue that cruelty to animals is one of the key symptoms of the ‘conduct disorder’ (Phillips, 2014).
  5. Abuse of animals is prevalent in homes with high rates of domestic violence and the child abuse (Phillips, 2014).
  6. Adolescence is the vital stage that most of the adolescents gained their identity (Bergin & Bergin, 2011).
  7. Domestic violence and child abuse are some of the important external factors that influence their identity developments negatively.
  8. The answers to the questions below would facilitate attaining the research objectives.
  9. What is the relationship between abuse of animals and criminal activities by adolescents?
  10. Is it probable that an adolescent who is being involved in animal abuse will soon commit a crime?
  • How does domestic violence and child violence influence adolescent’s abuse of animals and consequently crime against human beings?
  1. Independent Variable
  2. Abuse of animals
  3. Animals in a similar way to human beings have experienced abuse from the human beings.
  4. Pets have emerged to be significant to many people, and they are present in many homes.
  5. In a study conducted to investigate domestic violence in the northeastern states, it was noted that before the real violence emerges there is a sequence of animal abuse.
  6. The cruelty against animals that ranged from shooting, punching, throwing, stabbing, and hitting preceded the violent actions against human beings.
  7. Animals are the immediate target for abuse by children at a young age since they are available in their rooms, TVS, movies and inform of toys.
  8. Dependent variable
  9. Adolescent criminal behavior
  10. There are vital factors that can be used in the prediction of criminal outcomes of the adolescent.
  11. The psychosocial and other psychological factors would be used in the prediction of the emergence of the criminal behavior.
  12. The difficulty of the adolescent to solve problems positively and associated mental problems are the vital considerations that can be used to predict the development of the criminal behavior (Aebi, 2014).
  13. There is a fundamental relationship between the parental hood and the adolescent criminal behavior.
  14. The young adults whose parents do not exercise close supervision on them have a higher probability of being involved in the delinquent behavior due to the low ability to make decisions (Harris-McKoy, 2013).
  15. Adolescent identity development
  16. Adolescence is the important stage where a young adult acquires a stable awareness of the self.
  17. During the stage, individuals become more conscious of the impact of the change in identities on the life in future.
  18. The development of the major parts of the body such as the brain influence the cognitive, social and the emotional responses of the adolescents.
  • It is at this stage where the adolescents learn and seek autonomy in making decisions that have an impact on them that is often out of previous experiences (Bergin & Bergin, 2011).
  1. Variables relationship prediction
  2. The animal abuse predicts the Adolescent criminal behavior.
  3. A young individual’s violent behavior is directed towards animals before it is initiated against the human beings.
  4. The negative behavior of harming animals acts as a fundamental characteristic of the development of a psychological conduct disorder.
  • Cruelty against animals acts as a predictor of an adolescent who is troubled. Failure to rectify the behavior leads to the risk of emergence of violent behavior and psychological difficulties (Flynn, 2011).
  1. Satapathy et al. (2016) noted that a child who commits an act of bestiality is likely to be involved in interpersonal crimes.
  2. The act should be taken as a warning to the society.
  3. An evaluation should be done to determine the source of the behavior especially the pornographic materials on the internet (Satapathy et al., 2016).
  4. Parental hood influence the adolescent identity development.
  5. The parents who are involved in violence and child abuse would make the young adult learn that the only way to solve issues is through becoming cruel.
  6. The events of the domestic violence and child abuse have a long-term effect on the brain development of a child. It would cause hypersensitive responses of the adolescent resulting into the mental and physical health difficulties (Phillips, 2014).
  7. The research will significantly contribute to the developments in the scientific knowledge.
  8. The inquiries would present the importance of the adolescence stage to the life of the young adults.
  9. It would facilitate the parents and community to respond effectively whenever children commit behaviors such as bestiality and violence on animals.
  10. The research would result in various findings fundamental to the community.
  11. There is a fundamental relationship between abuse of the animals and adolescent criminal behavior.
  12. In adolescent identity development, young adults learn behaviors that have an impact on their life.








Aebi, M. H. (2014). Problem coping skills, psychosocial adversities and mental health problems in children and adolescents as predictors of criminal outcomes in young adulthood. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(5), 283-293.

Ascione, F. R. (2001). Animal abuse and youth violence. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Bergin, C. C., & Bergin, D. A. (2011). Child and adolescent development in your classroom. Cengage Learning.

Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Flynn, C. P. (2011). Examining the links between animal abuse and human violence. Crime, Law & Social Change, 55(5), 453-468. doi:10.1007/s10611-011-9297-2

Harris-McKoy, D. M. (2013). Parental Control, Adolescent Delinquency, and Young Adult Criminal Behavior. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 22(6), 836-843.

Phillips, A. (2014). UNDERSTANDING The Link between Violence to Animals and People (1st ed.). Alexandria: National District Attorneys Association. Retrieved from

Satapathy, S., Swain, R., Pandey, V., & Behera, C. (2016). An Adolescent with Bestiality Behaviour: Psychological Evaluation and Community Health Concerns. Indian Journal Of Community Medicine, 41(1), 23-26. doi:10.4103/0970-0218.170961

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