Strategic Steps in Developing a Business Brand


General Provisions

The thesis – including the main body, appendices, the abstract, the table of contents, the bibliography, footnotes and endnotes – must be prepared with an electronic text editor according to the following specifications:

  • font: black, Times New Roman;
  • font size: 12;
  • line spacing: 1.5;
  • alignment: justified;
  • margins: 3 cm on the left, 5 cm each on the right, bottom and top.

The footnote should be prepared as follows:

  • font: black, Times New Roman;
  • font size: 10;
  • line spacing: single;
  • alignment:

The page numbering must be displayed continuously in Arabic numerals. Page numbers should be inserted aligned to the right in the footer.

The length of the main body (without the abstract, the table of contents, the bibliography, footnotes, endnotes, figures, tables, illustrations and appendices) is as follows:

  • for students in higher educational vocational training programmes, at least 25 pages and 40,000 characters (with spaces), 50 pages at most;
  • for students in bachelor’s programmes (BA/BSc), at least 36 pages and 70,000 characters (with spaces), 60 pages at most;
  • for students in postgraduate specialist training programmes, at least 36 pages and 70,000 characters (with spaces), 60 pages at most, except for the art and art mediation postgraduate specialist training programmes where the length of the main body of the thesis is at least 12 pages and 20,000 characters (with spaces), 20 pages at most;
  • for students in master’s programmes (MA/MSc), at least 45 pages and 90,000 characters (with spaces), 70 pages at most;7
  • for students in art and art mediation bachelor’s programmes, the body of the thesis must be at least 20 pages and 32,000 characters, 36 pages at most;
  • for students in art master’s programmes, the body of the thesis must be at least 12 pages and 20,000 characters, 20 pages at

For students in Art and Design Management master’s programme, the minimum requirements of art training programmes apply to the length of their thesis.

The genre (“thesis”) must be printed in the middle of the front cover, the student’s name must appear in the bottom left corner, and the year of the thesis must appear in the bottom right corner.

6 Amended by Senate resolution no. 36/0918/2020. Effective date: September 21, 2020.

7 The number of characters is to be investigated only upon doubt in connection with the number of pages.

The information above must also be included on the title page of the thesis along with the name of the institution (Budapest Metropolitan University), the precise title of the thesis, the name of the thesis adviser, the name of the programme and the level of training (higher educational vocational training programme, BA, MA, postgraduate specialist training programme), the training site (Budapest, Hódmezővásárhely) and the year of the thesis.

The Abstract of the Thesis

Students must prepare an abstract (keywords, main scientific sources8, concise summary) for their thesis in Hungarian and either English, German, French, Spanish, Italian or Russian. Students in foreign-language programmes need to prepare the abstract only in the language of the programme. The concise summary in the abstract must be between a minimum of half a page and a maximum of one page in length for each language with the formatting requirements for the thesis applied. The entire abstract must be attached to the thesis and uploaded separately as well. The elements of the extract are included in the sample at the end of this present Annex. The number of characters in the abstract does not count towards the required number of characters of the thesis.

Recommended translation of the abstract:

  • English: Abstract,
  • German: Abstract,
  • Italian: Estratto,
  • French: Résumé (de thèse),
  • Russian: Aбстракт,
  • Spanish: Resúmen (de tesis).

Table of Contents

In the thesis, the abstract is immediately followed by the table of contents. The structure of the table of contents must follow the numbering of the chapters of the main body. When numbering the chapters and subchapters, the decimal notation must be used to reflect the structure:

  1. Main title

1 1.1. Subtitle 1

1 1.1.1. Part 1

1 1.1.2. Part 2

1.1.3. etc.

  • Subtitle 2

The Content of the Thesis

The thesis must reflect that its author has acquired the fundamental knowledge of the discipline(s) of science related to the given topic, has become sufficiently familiar with relevant publications, is familiar with the techniques required for scientific activities, and is capable of defining a scientific problem and investigating it independently. The topics elaborated must be scientific in nature and must also contain independent thoughts and considerations. During development, the scientific research methods of the given field must be applied.

The following considerations must be taken into account when designing the structure of the thesis:

  • the introduction must provide an accurate definition of the question, problem, and field examined, the purpose of the thesis, and must describe the related theoretical background and broader context before elaborating on the topic in the narrower sense;

8 The literature should be included in the abstract in the form used in the bibliography.

  • following the elaboration on the topic, the conclusion contains a brief summary of the findings, statements of the thesis and the research results.

General requirements related to the content of the thesis

General requirements related to the content of the thesis are the following:

  • Justification, timeliness, and uniqueness (practical applicability) of the topic chosen, conformity of the title with the
  • Consistent application of terminology compliant with the conventions of the given discipline of science, such terminology being accurate from a scientific and professional point of view and required for the given
  • Solid theoretical basis of the thesis resting on related academic literature and theory, processing, evaluation, review and analysis of related domestic and foreign literature, and their comparison to own
  • Adequacy of the research question, data collection, and
  • Empirical investigations and/or analysis of
  • Appropriate sampling and/or appropriate scope of sources.
  • Credibility and orderliness of data, appropriate method of its documentation and
  • Professional processing of the topic, appropriate methodology, not merely of a descriptive
  • Critical reflections, observation of connections.
  • Structure of the thesis, proportionate discussion of topics, logical breakdown of main chapters and subchapters, the overall structure and title structure, as well as clarity of the
  • Conclusions, own opinion, fulfilment of the objectives defined in the title and the introduction, correctly drawn
  • Spelling and grammar, language usage, style, appearance, and appropriate layout of the thesis, accuracy and fluency of the wording, clarity of figures and tables.

The rules of citation and referencing

The students’ familiarity with the literature and the sources used is demonstrated by the direct and indirect references in the text of the main body. References must be made in accordance with the APA International Standard for all types of documents. For reference under the APA, the Library provides detailed guidance on the CooSpace surface, within the Library Scene among the Student Documents. The obligation to refer also extends to online sources, unknown sources, newspaper articles and book chapters.

The thesis must have accurate, unambiguous references. Accuracy means the clear identification and easy retrieval of sources, unambiguity means that it is clear where a citation begins and where it ends.

The presentation of a specific author’s thoughts may be done in two ways: word-for-word quotation and/or paraphrasing.

Word-for-word quotations must be inserted between quotation marks (“…”). Word-for-word (verbatim) quotations may not be longer than 10 lines, 2 paragraphs or 500 characters (with spaces).

When paraphrasing, no quotation marks are necessary.

The reference is intertextual for both verbatim citations and paraphrasing. For both types of citation, the source must always be enclosed in parentheses after the quoted text, indicating the author, year of publication, page number or page range, e.g. (Róka, 2002, p. 32). Additional bibliographic data of the source should be included in the bibliography at the end of the thesis.

When specifying statistical data, all quantified information must be referenced even if it is a fact of common knowledge.

In all cases, reference should also be made to pictures, illustrations, graphs and tables in the dissertation. This obligation also exists in case these are elements of the student’s own creation or editing.

Citations without references are considered plagiarism.


To avoid plagiarism, students must use footnotes to identify the sources of facts and data not comprising common knowledge and the ideas of and citations from other persons as specified in this Annex. This rule pertains to all the sources used including research results, studies, essays, book reviews, websites, audio material, etc.

The student must document all of the sources used for submitted pieces of writing and the bibliographic information identifying them. The student who fails to do so commits plagiarism and must face the sanctions specified by the Student Requirement System.

To control plagiarism, the University uses the Urkund plagiarism detection tool. To do this, the student is obliged to send their dissertation – before the final submission – to the Urkund address9 of their supervisor. The Urkund system provides automatic confirmation of this fact. The ID of the certificate must be indicated in the “Authorization of the submission of the thesis” application.

The rules of compiling the list of referenced literature

The bibliography (list of referenced literature) is a compulsory element of the thesis. The bibliography must and may only list the pieces of literature consulted and referenced in the text of the main body.

The list must be ordered alphabetically, numbered, and the academic sources must be separated from other types of sources.

Academic literature is defined as all texts published in a monograph, collection of essays and papers or a journal that process the given topic using relevant qualitative, quantitative or interpretive methods and that are reviewed by the publisher or a group of peer experts, for example specialist books, scientific periodicals or journals and articles in such publications.

Other sources include daily newspaper, magazine, lexicon, encyclopedia, legislation, analysis, interview, internal company material, statistics, blogs, social media.

The compulsory minimum number of source material to be used in theses is as follows:

  • in case of higher educational vocational training programmes: 5 pieces of academic literature and 10 other sources;
  • in case of bachelor’s programmes and postgraduate specialist training programmes: 15 pieces of academic literature and 5 other sources;
  • in case of master’s programmes: 35 sources, out of which at least 25 are scientific literature;
  • in case of art and art mediation bachelor’s or master’s programmes: 10 pieces of academic literature and 3 other

9 The supervisor’ Urkund address is managed and sent to the supervisors by the Library. The student may inquire about this from their supervisor and the Library.

Further Minimum (Acceptance) Requirements for the Thesis

During the preparation of the thesis, the author of the thesis must pay special attention to the spelling and grammatical accuracy regulations and rules according to the rules of the language of instruction. A thesis that is objectionable in terms of grammatical accuracy cannot be accepted by the supervisor. During the evaluation of the dissertation, the reviewers evaluate that the grammatical accuracy of the dissertation meets the expectations of the genre which fact is scored separately.

Upon the decision of the Equal Opportunities Committee, the student with special needs can be excused from the minimum (acceptance) requirements and/or the grammatical requirements. In such a case, the decision is to be placed within the thesis. For the protection of the student’s personal data, the classification of the thesis is obligatory in this case.

Submitting the Thesis

The thesis must be submitted by students electronically to the closed internal storage of the University. Items to be uploaded:

  • the entire thesis from the title page to the end of the appendices, including the elements of the abstract, which are placed between the title page and the table of contents at the time of biding;
  • the abstract must also be uploaded as a separate document (keywords, key literature, content abstract in Hungarian and in foreign languages);
  • in case of a classified thesis, the accepted request for classified treatment or the decision of the Equal Opportunities Committee. The condition for the classified handling of the thesis is the obligatory upload of one of these two

Statement on the Consideration of Copyrights

When submitting theses, students must declare electronically that the theses prepared and submitted by them are the result of their own efforts and that they have used all the information in the theses observing copyright.

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