Public Health Evidence : Synthesis and Anylsis

Public Health Evidence : Synthesis and Anylsis was the subject name, it focus on the methodology. following is the topic.
MAPH PHE Research Brief
Local Authority: the health and wellbeing of migrant and asylum communities
Sheffield’s Joint Wellbeing Strategy 2012/13 states that the life expectancy gap between the most and least deprived people for 2009‐2011 is 8.7 years for men and 7.4 years for women. There are 29 neighbourhoods in the city (a quarter of the city’s population) that are within the 20% most deprived in England.
In Sheffield, some communities and groups experience a much poorer quality of life across all the wider determinants of ill‐health. In particular, these groups include looked after children and children with learning difficulties and disabilities, some BME communities, migrant and asylum communities, homeless people, victims of domestic and sexual abuse, carers and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
You have been asked to undertake a scoping exercise to inform the development of a city-wide research project. The aim of the research will be to explore issues relating to the health and wellbeing of migrant and asylum communities.




Public Health Evidence: Synthesis and Analysis

In a scoping exercise, the researcher is required to identify the known and unknown in the intended research. The primary aim is to determine the elements that need additional focus in the research. In this research, scoping exercise is intended to inform on the methods appropriate for the collection and analysis of data, ethics and important facts on the health of asylum and the migrants in the fore-planned research. The Sheffield Joint Health and Well-being Strategy 2013-2018 (p.17) identified the migrants and asylum communities among those living in poor conditions. The poor conditions limit the access to the quality healthcare. The aim of the scoping exercise in the research is to understand the health and well-being of the migrant and asylum communities in the Sheffield city.

Collection of data and evidence evaluation

Sheffield city has high migration rate history. The City has a challenge coping with the increasing immigrants into the area. Currently, there is an increased international migration into the city. Often, migration is associated with health concerns. It is important to develop their healthcare due to their large numbers in the city by designing a proper research approach. Balnaves and Caputi (2001, p.30) found that both the quantitative and qualitative methodology complement one another. They allow the a holistic analysis of a case. The research will adopt both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in the research (Bray et al., 2013, p.67). The quantitative methodology will determine the number of migrants in the city. Moreover, it will determine the elements of their living conditions such as number of children, houses, cars, basic salary and other elements that determine the well-being of the society. Besides, determine the number of the migrants and the asylum people visiting the hospitals in the city. Also, determine from which diseases they were suffering. The quantitative research is based on the fact the world is made of the facts that can be measured (Thomas 2013, p. 14). The qualitative methodology will be used to determine the quality of life they live such as kind of houses, type of employments, and the kind of hospitals they attend, whether private or public.

Gryszel-Fieldsned and Reeve (2007) conducted a research to determine the conditions of the Poland migrants in Sheffield and noticed they were living in the poor conditions. The Poland immigrations are dated back in 1939 after the German occupation in the Poland. The Polish immigrants arrived without the knowledge of where they would spend their first night. They had to live in the insecure accommodation. Most of the migrants rented living houses in private premises (Gryszel-Fieldsned & Reeve, 2007, p. 05).

There are many people seeking asylum in the UK. In the past date, there were approximately 655 000 people looking for asylum status in the UK. In that period, one-third of those was given a refugee status. Also, one fifth of those who appealed were also given the refugee status. Nevertheless, it is estimated that only a fifth of those who are denied the asylum status leave the UK. The others representing 4/5 of the population disappear in the major cities including Sheffield (Arai, 2005, p.08). Recently, the government adopted a strategy to include the refugees and immigrants in the health strategies (Rose et al., 2010, p.23). Nevertheless, the program has not been successful since it has only reached the migrants and asylum who legally reside in the Sheffield City. The poor health conditions are still present in the city. The huge drawbacks include the flawed data relating to the migrants entering and leaving the UK. Comprehensive methods of collecting data are needed to attain the research objectives.




Research Design

The research will utilize the survey research design in the collection of the data. The survey research design will both be economical and very efficient in the collection of the information relating to the migrants. Both the questionnaires and interviews will be used to collect the information from the migrants and the asylum people. The snowball sampling is relevant in research especially in accessing the migrants who do not legally live in Sheffield. The method is very successful in the identification of migrant employees, homeless people and the immigrants who are undocumented (Babbie, 2011, p. 208). Therefore, the details relating to all the immigrants will be obtained. Besides, the snowballing method is applied in the qualitative research especially relating to the minority groups (Rubbin & Babbie, 2010, p. 108).

The research would need a huge amount of data. The researcher will collect data for the immigrant from them and at the same time from the hospital. Besides, the researchers will experience difficulties tracing the unregistered immigrants in the city. The Surveys are very effective in the collection of the large amount of data (Gravetter & Forzano, 2012, p.373). The data collected from the hospital will give insights on the Migrants and asylum who are visiting hospitals and for what ailments. The questionnaires will be sent to hospitals through the email. The questionnaires to the migrants will be presented to them physically. In the hospitals, the nurses and the doctors have the ability to read and return the questionnaires easily. The migrants might have inadequate knowledge to understand the questionnaires (Brace, 2008, p.46). The researcher will conduct the interviews with both the migrants and the hospitals. The observation will be used to collect the qualitative data from the migrants.


Evaluating evidence

Analysis of Data

Different methods will be used in the analysis of data. First, the correlation will be used to determine how different variables in the health of the migrants relate. For instance, how the income level related to the access of the health care. Second, measures of the central tendency will be used in determining the relationship of the data collected to the well-being of the migrants with a single value. The measures of the central tendency include the mean, mode, median, and range. Third, graphs will also be relevant in the description of the data.


The process of the research ought to observe ethics and moral virtues of the society. Ethics is observed by avoiding trespassing into people’s lives. First, the researcher is required to plan effectively for the research. The planning stage involves activities like selecting a research design, hypothesis and sample. Moreover, it involves determining how the ethics would be observed in relation to the migrants and the health professionals (Marks & Worboys, 2002, p.34). The researcher makes plans on how to obtain consent to speak with employees in the hospitals where research would be conducted. In the planning, the researcher should ensure proper training of those going to the field to make certain the protection of the rights of the participants (Wizemann, 2010, p.68).

Second, the researcher submits a research protocol that describes the rationale, objectives, methodology, the method of data evaluation and how the whole public health research would be organized.

Moreover, the researcher should submit a proposal relating to the health and the well-being of the migrants and the asylums to the relevant authority. It is a requirement that elements of the ethics be included in the research proposal. No research should be funded without a good statement on how the issue related to ethics would be controlled (Mollona, 2009, p. 21). The submission of the research proposal is important, especially where the researcher requires the funding of the research.

Afterwards, the researcher would implement the research as planned. The researcher would make certain they obtain informed consent from the migrants and the health workers. It involves informing them the purpose, and any effect that may come from participating in the research. The participants should also be informed that their identification would remain anonymous and be allowed to make the right decision on the participation in the research. The participants should also be aware that the participation is voluntary.  During the implementation, the researcher would face an ethical dilemma. How would he be able to trace those individuals who stay in Sheffield city illegally and fail to report them to the relevant authority? Significantly, in research the identification of individuals who participated should remain anonymous (Coughlin, 2009, p. 26).

Ethics can also be observed by ensuring that there is transparency during the research. Data from the research would be analysed, interpreted and communicated to all the stakeholders and the community if required. It is ethical that the data communicated in the public health is accurate and with no manipulation. However, confidential data may be withheld from disclosure.

Evaluation of the sources

The sources used are both significant to the research approach adopted and the improvement of public health especially to the migrants and the asylum communities. Important sources revealed the intention of the Sheffield city in dealing with the health problems with the migrants and the asylum. The Sheffield Joint Health and Well-being Strategy 2013-2018 (p.17) gave a plan on how the health and well-being would be addressed for five years. Similarly, there was a plan that addressed the same issue in the year 2009-2011. Currently, it is the third year of the implementation of the 2013-2018 plans. It is evident that the issue of the immigrant’s health would be difficult up to the year 2018. Therefore, a new approach is needed. Arai (2015) gave an important insight on the issue of immigration. He found United Kingdom had many migrants applying for asylum who after the rejection of their applications, find ways to settle in the major cities (Walton-Roberts, & Hennebry, 2013, p. 35). At the same time, the government does not have a comprehensive system of controlling employees.

Several sources give insights as to possible approaches to conducting research. Balnvanes and Caputi (2001, p.30) influenced the decision of combining both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The issue of the migration was identified to have deep roots in the Sheffield city, and, therefore, a deep analysis of the issue was needed. At the same time, Arai (2015, p. 8) found that there was a great number of illegal immigrants in the Sheffield city. Therefore, a strategy to get research succeed was needed. Babbie (2011, p. 208) identified the snowballing sampling to be very vital in getting the information from the illegal immigrants.

Issues encountered and Skills acquired-Scoping Exercise.

 Arise of the more issues

The scoping exercise aims at giving more detailed facts on what should be covered in the forthcoming research. In the effort to undertake a detailed understanding of the matter news issues arose. For instance, the fact that there are migrants and asylums who live the Sheffield city illegally. Also, it was noted that the United Kingdom lacked a proper system of recording the migrants and asylums. The factors are not health related, but they determine the distribution of the health resources in the Sheffield (Hollifield et al., 2014, p.75). The matter was solved by including the issue of the illegal immigrants in the research study.

Significant skills in carrying were acquired for research and triangulation of the variables.

Ethical matters

In the research, it was noted the researcher would be in an ethical dilemma in accessing the illegal immigrants and failing to report them to the relevant authorities. Nevertheless, the researcher had to maintain the desired confidence to attain the objectives of the researcher. The dilemma was important in building the skills required to maintain confidential information. In case the authorities intercepted the researcher should remind them of the significance of the study.

Need for new strategies

It was realised there are illegal immigrants.  A new way to include them in the research was needed. Notably, the illegal migrants were an important group that influenced the success of health strategies in Sheffield city. Snowball sampling was significant in building a link among the illegal immigrants to attain the objectives of the research. A skill on how to carry out research in special groups like drugs addicts, drug peddlers, thieves, terrorists was acquired.





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