Indigenous Australians and the Human Services.



Assessment #2 – Expression of Interest
The Expression of Interest (EOI) assessment of 2000 wds is designed to give you a practical opportunity to address your understanding of concepts and content from the course, by responding to contemporary employment criteria. It will give you an opportunity to put into practice some of your learnings and own experience related to engaging and working effectively with Indigenous Australian people and communities.

You are required to write an Expression of Interest (EOI) proposal in response to criteria which feature in current employment job and person specifications. Your EOI will relate to a project that will be implemented in an Indigenous context (organisation or community). You will then need to provide details of your knowledge developed throughout the course, as it would apply to the employment criteria. The aim of the assessment is to demonstrate you have understood the course and are making the links between theory and application to practice.

This assessment will explore some of the central characteristics of Indigenous Australian cultures, the history of colonisation, and influences of dominant culture, the social, economic and psychological effects of colonisation on Indigenous Australians, racism, power and whiteness, contemporary Indigenous societies, and the role of human service professionals in contemporary contexts.

There are three components to this assessment and all need to be satisfactorily completed. This includes a formal ‘job’ application letter, as well as your reflections and demonstrations of comprehension. This assessment is designed for you to consider the course content, and to reflect upon feelings and understanding of the materials and concepts. You will be required to draw upon workshop content and discussions, other course materials and broader research in your responses.

We will be expecting you to demonstrate that you have analysed and understood the material presented and that your writing and responses indicate reflective thinking with regard to the course content and consideration of your learning. That is, we want you to demonstrate that you have engaged in the material in a scholarly and critical manner.

Details of this assessment will be discussed at length at your workshops and the criteria will be available at Learnonline.


1. Write it in easier language as an international students level and don’t use any difficult word.

2. The page number of in-text referencing must be quoted and match with the end-text referencing.

3. Plz must read all the uploaded file. Otherwise u will easily leave the topic idea and would fail for the course.

4. This is Social Work core subject assignment and use the idea from the attached powerpoint and course outline.

5. you must use the referencing from required topic or e-reading as source or referencing that shows very strong connection of the course to the tutor. ( very very very Important)

This is e- reading link:

Login In Name: LEUTY012
pAssword: HKboy111
The aim of this course is to develop an understanding of the knowledge, values and skills required to work effectively as human service professionals in Indigenous contexts, which is culturally accountable to Indigenous Australian people and communities. The course provides a foundation on which to consider the contemporary issues facing human service professions in renegotiating its working relationship with Indigenous people. It aims to provide an opportunity for new beginnings to commence in welfare and social services’ commitment and accountability to justice and equity for Indigenous people. Therefore this course takes some clear value positions in relation to professional workers’ being critically reflective about both the history and future of their relationship with Indigenous people in Australia. In order to achieve this, the course requires students to engage in personal reflection about their own connections to culture and power.

Course Aim
To further develop students’ understanding of the knowledge, values and skills required to work effectively as human service/social work professionals in Indigenous Australian contexts, which is culturally accountable to Indigenous Australian people and communities.

Course Objectives On completion of this course, students should be able to: CO1. demonstrate the ability to summarise the central characteristics of Indigenous Australian cultures and how these can contribute positively to social work practice and wellbeing in the community. CO2. demonstrate the application of contemporary social work/human services theory in an Indigenous Australian context. CO3. critically analyse Indigenous Australian perspectives in response to professional social work practice. CO4. comprehend the diversity and importance of cultural contexts in social work practice particularly, in relation to Indigenous Australian perspectives on contemporary issues. CO5. understand the complexity of cross cultural understandings of the past & current wellbeing of Indigenous Australians. CO6. examine the ethical dimensions of practice and the issues of accountability for professionals working in Indigenous contexts; CO7. critically analyse racism, whiteness and the role of privilege and power in the profession and as a practitioner and the impact of these in relation to Indigenous Australian peoples.






Address (Personal)




Dear Sir/Madam

I have always been interested in the work of the World Vision in alleviating poverty through advocating policies, collaboration, educations, and personal developments, remaining spiritually right and advocating for social justice. My current interests are on the programs intended to empower the Aboriginal people in Australia.

Recently, I saw an advertisement in the Herald Sun advertising the position of Caseworker who will handle the welfare of the Aboriginal community. I viewed that as an opportunity to help the Aboriginal towards realizing their rights. My ability and awareness of the vital past and current aspects of the Aboriginal put me in a position to speak effectively and respectfully to the Aboriginal people. Besides, the understanding of the political, social and the economic difficulties that the Aboriginal people have passed puts me in a better position to advise them effectively. Also, I have the knowledge on the problems that the Aboriginal people have faced such as children removal, segregation, and racism. All these would require to be tackled intelligently to come up with a lasting solution. Therefore, the knowledge, values and skills of the culture would help me respond to the demands of this job effectively.


Yours Faithfully


Part 1

Ability to communicate with Indigenous Australian families and communities

The communication and the interpersonal relationships among the Aboriginal people vary greatly compared to the other non-Aboriginal people. They are the people who have been oppressed for long in Australia. Effective communication would ensure that the feedback received is accurate and dependable. I have the capability to communicate effectively with the Aboriginal people in Australia. First, I possess very strong interpersonal skills that would make certain that I would create a lasting relationship with the Aboriginal people. Second, possessed flexibility in the communication style and I have the ability to relate very well to both old and young people (Bowe, Martin & Manns, 2014).Third, I understand the Aboriginal people and the challenges they have faced, and I can truly speak to them on the way forward. I have the ability to communicate in the local languages and the terminologies that can be understood in the Aboriginal English. Moreover, I truly understand the historical challenges that have been faced by the Aboriginal people. I have the ability to communicate effectively without hurting the Aboriginals.


Ability to engage respectfully with the Indigenous Australian community

The ability to engage respectfully with the Aboriginal people is highly dependent on the understanding of the current and the past conditions in the community. With that, I would have understood the needs of the Aboriginal people and the challenges that they are facing. The people will have the ability to understand that I have come to help them acquire equality rather than instilling more pain to them in a tricky way.

I have the capability to understand they were greatly affected by the impact of the removal of children and the colonization. They were greatly oppressed and denied the right access social amenities. I will help them in attaining their desired social equity. The Aboriginal has suffered in the hands of the local people and the foreigners. It is vital that I would identify my goal of interaction with them.


Ability to understand and have knowledge of Indigenous Australian communities’ family and kinship systems

The Aboriginal are divided into families and kinships. For instance, members of the Nyoongar family belong to the Aboriginal community. The aspects of the Aboriginal can be looked in national, local, and the family interrelationships (Fisher, Sonn & Bishop, 2002, p.43). Locally, the members of the Aboriginal community interact with the members of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginals. Similarly, the Aboriginals also participate in the meeting intended to solve the problems of the Aboriginal people.

In relationship to the family, Different Perth groups make up the Perth Aboriginal Community. For instance, a person who belongs to Nyoongar, his family is Perth. Moreover, he belongs to the broader Perth, Aboriginal Community (Fisher, Sonn & Bishop, 2002, p.46).



Ability to provide effective and sensitive advice to Indigenous Australian community members

The ability to provide effective advice would depend on an understanding of the problems faced by the Aboriginal people. First, the understanding that Aboriginal people have faced various forms of racism such as institutional and cultural would help advise them effectively on the way to handle the issue. The issue of racism can be solved effectively by the formation of a law that prohibits the racism based on the race or gender. Therefore, it is worth for the community with the support of legal fraternity and other advocates of human rights push for the formation of a law that would prohibit the segregation of the Aboriginal on the racial lines.

They also have difficulties in accessing the social amenities such as hospitals and the education facilities. Everybody has the right to access the facilities provided by the government. The World Vision will enhance access to the facilities by initiating new health and education facilities and advocating for more for the Aboriginal.



Ability to work within a team in a culturally accountable way

A person needs to be culturally competent to work in a culturally accountable manner. To have the ability, there is the need to improve the knowledge, values, and skills. A person has the abilities to think intellectually with the relevant information and respond effectively to the needs of the cultural community. The understanding there are no any criteria that one culture can use in judging another culture is vital. That way, the working relationships with the people from other cultures would be very effective. Also, the people from the Aboriginal culture will appreciate the positive actions being done in their culture. The knowledge, skills and the values possessed would enhance the ability to work in a team. Moreover, the ability to work in an accountable way in Aboriginal culture would be enhanced by the lack of the cultural bias. The cultural bias involved the act of judging events and people using oneself culture.


General awareness of issues confronting Indigenous Australian families and communities


The Aboriginal people have faced huge difficulties in the Australia. They have been discriminated in the education, housing, health, and in the employment. Both the government institutions and other races living in Australia have a negative attitude towards the Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people face huge difficulties in accessing education, health, employment opportunities, and the equality in the Australian law due to racism(Pedersen et al., 2006, p.171). For instance, in 2001, the Perth Aboriginal health service was closed in the argument that it was overspending. Nevertheless, Perth Teaching Hospitals spent over 120 times of the money spent by Perth Aboriginal health service, and they were not closed. The institution was closed to segregate the Aboriginal people. Racism is rampant in the Australia against the Aboriginal. People. People are aware of the fact that other communities in the Australia have a negative attitude towards the Aboriginal people (Pedersen et al., 2006, p.171). Also, there are false beliefs associated with the Aboriginal person that makes them be segregated further. For instance, the belief there is a probability of Aboriginal to take alcohol than the non-Aboriginals (Pedersen, Watt & Hansen, 2006).


Knowledge of the history of Indigenous Australians and the impact of past welfare practices

Historically, Aboriginal people have faced many challenges. First, the racism affected them significantly. In 1817 to 1979, a program was introduced that removed children over five generations from their homesteads (Koolmatrie & Williams, 2000, p. 160). In every five children, one was selected from among the Aboriginal while only one was from non-Aboriginal children. The children removal from their homes by the government initiated the alienation of the Aboriginal people. Many of the children taken by the authorities suffered under the hand of the authorities and their life, and generations were affected negatively (Home, 1997, p.3). It also resulted in the degradation and high oppression to the Aboriginal people.

The Aboriginal access to the education was highly affected by the colonization by the Great Britain. The colonization started in the year 1788 after the land in Australia was declared belonging to no one. The emergence of the policies such as removal of children, segregation, and dispossession resulted in the alienation of the Aboriginal. For instance, education level of the Aboriginal increased from 17% to 20% between 1994 and 2008. In the case of non-Aboriginal,  education level increased from 54% to 76% (Brown & Yasukawa, 2009, p.110).


Part 2: Comprehensive: Applying Terms & Concepts

In your own words, please summarize/define the following terms/concepts

  1. a) Ethnocentricity

It is a phenomenon where a person tends to look at other people and the rest of the world from the perspective of his or her culture. In that case, people tend to use the standards and morals derived from their culture to judge and evaluate other cultures (Pedersen, et al., 2005, pg172).

  1. b) Essentialism

Essentialism is the belief that it is not possible to change the features that people possess because they belong to a particular culture. For instance, the belief that the Aboriginals have some characteristic that is not changeable.

  1. c) Racism

Racism refers to the tendency to think that the dominant and physical characteristics of a certain group of people are directly linked to their psychological and intellectual characteristics (The Australian Psychological Society Ltd, 1997, p. 11).

  1. d) Racial Prejudice

Judging people who are identified as members of a certain group based on their presumed characteristics (Graetz & Mcallister, 1994, pg131).

  1. e) Racial Discrimination

Refers to the time where a person is treated unfairly than another person in the same situation, due to their race, color, origin or descent.

  1. f) Institutional Racism

Refers to the organization systems and policies in society, that tend to exclude the people who are from groups that are not dominant (Pedersen, et al., 2005, p. 171).


Exploring Power, Whiteness and White Privilege

The concept of Whiteness has been introduced to you in order to identify and establish a position from which dominant cultures view the Racisms and can contribute more specifically to Institutional Racism.

  • In your own words, please write up a Definition Statement of Whiteness and White Privilege, as you have come to understand it:

Whiteness and white privilege are two intertwined concepts. First, whiteness refers to the aspect of being white. The white people consider themselves to be superior to any other race across the globe. They tend to believe that people from other cultures are disadvantaged and do not require the provision of quality services. In that case, the concept of racial discrimination comes into place. White privilege refers to the idea that the white people are taught to the belief that their lives are ideal and that they work to benefit other people. Therefore, the beneficiaries would become like the white people (McIntosh,1990, pg31).

  • Provide examples of how White Privilege is applied, and can become evident, in some everyday contexts and environments in Australia? Use critical analysis here:
  1. Workplace

At the workplace, the white people appear to be the majority. More so, a white person can get into any job without being suspected that they got there because of their race (McIntosh, 1990, p. 35).

  1. Personal Relationships

In personal relationships, the white people expect their neighbors to be neutral and friendly to them. If anyone interferes with their peace, they can face them without any fear (Radermacher, 2006, p. 34)

  1. Policies & Practices

The white people are always sure and confident that their color would not act against them or their children in a court of law (Tannoch-Bland, 1998, pg. 34).

  1. Community Attitudes

In the community, the white people believe that no one can discriminate against them regarding their gender. For women, they believe that they can talk to a group of men without fear. (Radermacher, 2006, p. 34).

  • Write a Reflective Statement surrounding your exploration of Racism, Whiteness, Power and related concepts.

It was easy in arriving at the definition of the whiteness and white privilege concepts in both my context and the context of the profession. The concept of racism is a worldwide issue, and therefore, such concepts were easy to understand. The close interrelationships between the racism, whiteness, and power challenge the thinking.

When talking about racism there is a probability of it being associated with black or white people. Moreover, who is more privileged than the other is. Additionally, the whiteness may be described as an identity in racism. The reader must be involved in the conceptual thinking process to arrive at the actual meaning of the words. The words racism, whiteness, power, and white privilege are closely related. In every aspect, where there is racism there is always an element of being black or white. The whiteness and blackness are the elements of racism but not racism itself. The racism has an extra element of discrimination or segregation. The understanding of the concepts is crucial to reaching out to a vital decision on fighting racism. The aboriginal people are faced with the problems of racism and not whiteness. There is a need to improve the well-being of the Aboriginal people in a democratic society.








Bowe, H., Martin, K., & Manns, H. (2014). Communication across cultures: Mutual understanding in a global world. Cambridge University Press.

Brown, T, & Yasukawa, K 2009, ‘Education at the centre? Australia’s national union education program’, Australian Journal Of Adult Learning, 49, 1, pp. 102-125, Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 October 2015.

Carter , D. (2006) Dispossession, Dreams & Diversity, Ch 4. Aboriginal History & Australian History,  pp.64 – 85.

Fisher, A. T., Sonn, C. C., & Bishop, B. J. (2002). Psychological sense of community: research, applications, and implications.

Graetz, B., & Mcallister, I. (1994). Dimensions of Australian society. South Melbourne, Macmillan Education.

Home, B. T. 1997. Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families. Sydney: Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission.

Johnson, P (1999), ‘Reflection on Critical White(ness) studies’, pp. 1 – 9

Koolmatrie, J, & Williams, R 2000, ‘Unresolved Grief and the Removal of Indigenous Australian Children’, Australian Psychologist, 35, 2, p. 158, Publisher Provided Full Text Searching File, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 October 2015.

McIntosh, P. (1990). Unpacking the knapsack of white privilege. Independent School, 49(2), 31-36.

Payne, M. (1997) Anti-discriminatory and anti-oppressive perspectives

Pedersen, A, Clarke, S, Dudgeon, P, & Griffiths, B 2005, ‘Attitudes toward Indigenous Australians and asylum seekers: The role of false beliefs and other social-psychological variables’, Australian Psychologist, 40, 3, pp. 170-178, Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 October 2015.

Pedersen, A, Watt, S, & Hansen, S 2006, ‘The role of false beliefs in the community’s and the federal government’s attitudes toward Australian asylum seekers’, Australian Journal Of Social Issues (Australian Council Of Social Service), 41, 1, pp. 105-124, SocINDEX with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 October 2015.

Radermacher, H. (2006). I’m white! Oh I see!’An international student perspective on national curriculum guidelines for Indigenous issues in psychology. The Australian Community Psychologist, 18(1), 33-9.

Tannoch-Bland, J. (1998). Identifying white race privilege. Bringing Australia together: The structure and experience of racism in Australia, 33-38.

The Australian Psychological Society Ltd (1997), Position Paper – Racism and Prejudice: Psychological Perspectives, retrieved from

Weaver, H. N. (1999). Indigenous people and the social work profession: Defining culturally competent services. Social Work, 44(3), 217-225.

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