Human Anatomy and Physiology





Human Anatomy and Physiology

  1. Name the 9 (nine) abdominal regions, and list ALL the organs found in EACH region. (3 points)

The nine abdominal regions and the organs found within them are as listed below.


Right lumbar

  • Parts of the colon in the middle right section
  • Parts of the small intestines in the middle right section


  • Urinary bladder
  • Parts of the small intestines in the lower and middle abdominal region
  • The uterus in females

Right hypochondriac

  • Right lobe of the liver
  • The gall bladder


  • Part of the intestines
  • The pancreas
  • Parts of the Transverse Colon

Left  inguinal (iliac)

  • Parts of the colon
  • Left ovary in females
  • Parts of the small intestines

The left Lumbar

  • Parts of the small intestines
  • Part of the colon

Right inguinal (iliac)

  • Cecum
  • Parts of the small intestines
  • appendix
  • Right ovary in females

The Epigastric

  • Parts of the left and right liver lobes
  • Large portion of the stomach

Left hypochondriac

  • Spleen
  • Small portion of the stomach
  • Portion of the colon



Source: Marieb & Smith, p. 7-20; Moini, p. 18-19

  1. Name the 4 (four) abdominal quadrants and list ALL the organs found in EACH quadrant. (2 points)

The four quadrants of the abdominal region as follows:


The Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)

  • Left kidney lower pole
  • The left spermatic cord in males
  • Part of the descending colon
  • Sigmoid colon
  • The bladder (when distended)
  • The uterus in females (if enlarged)
  • Left ureter
  • The salpinx and the ovary in females

The Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)

  • Portion of left Kidney
  • Left adrenal gland
  • The transverse and descending colon parts
  • Spleen
  • Body of the pancreas
  • Left lobe of the liver
  • Splenic flexure of the colon

The Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)

  • The right kidney’s lower pole
  • The appendix and the cecum
  • Uterus in females (if enlarged)
  • Right spermatic cord in males
  • The salpinx and the ovary in females
  • Bladder (if distended)
  • The right ureter
  • Parts of the ascending colon

The Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)

  • Hepatic flexure of the colon
  • The head of the pancreas
  • Parts of the transverse and the descending colon
  • The gall bladder
  • Duodenum
  • Right adrenal gland
  • Part of the right kidney
  • Liver



Source: Marieb & Smith,p. 7; Moini, p. 18

NOTE: For parts A and B, if one organ is found in more than one abdominal region or quadrant, describe WHICH PORTIONS of the organ(s) are found in each quadrant or region.


  1. Name AND describe IN DETAIL 2 specific passive transport mechanisms AND 2 specific active transport mechanisms used by cells. Compare and contrast these mechanisms. (5 points)

The two mechanisms of passive transport involve diffusion and filtration (Marieb & Smith,p. 55). Diffusion refers to the movement of substances from a region of higher concentration to a region with a lower concentration of that substance. This movement proceeds until a uniform concentration is attained in the two regions. Filtration refers to passive transport mechanisms in which substances move across a membrane due to the existence of differences in pressure in the two regions (Marieb & Smith,p. 61).

The mechanisms of active transport involve active transport and vesicular transport (Marieb & Smith, p. 62). Active transport involves the use of carrier proteins to transport substances across a membrane while being driven by ATP hydrolysis or by energy stored in form of ion gradients. Vesicular transport involves transport of macromolecules contained in the intracellular or extracellular matrix in vesicles.

Both active and passive transport mechanism involve transport of substances across the cell membrane in the existence of a concentration gradient. However, active transport can generate and maintain a chemical or electrochemical potential difference for non-electrolytes and ions across the cell membrane which is not the case in passive transport. Besides, active transport involves the consumption of energy in form ATP.


  1. Although his cholesterol levels were not high, Mr. Davis read that cholesterol was “bad for his health”. So, he eliminated all foods and food products containing cholesterol from his diet.

A,  Name 3 specific foods or food products that contain high levels of cholesterol that Mr. Davis may have eliminated from his diet. (2 points)

Some of the food with high cholesterol content that Mr. Davis may have eliminated in his meal include such as eggs, fried foods and organ meats (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, p. 5).

  1. Mr. Davis later found out that even after eliminating these foods completely from his diet, his cholesterol level only dropped by 20%. Why did it not drop more? (3 points)

Dietary change accounts for an average of 25% change in cholesterol (US Department of Health and Human Services, p. 53-54). The effect of dietary cholesterol is weak compared to the effect of that synthesized in the body if the number of calories taken is not accounted for despite taking food with low cholesterol amount. The portion of food that is cholesterol free may also affect the amount of cholesterol lost.


  1. Research shows that neurofibrillary tangles associated with the disintegration of microtubules are the primary cause of Alzheimer’s disease.
  2. Which cellular organelle is responsible for the production of microtubules? (1 point)

According to Marieb & Smith (p. 43), the centrosome assembles the microtubules.

  1. If microtubules disintegrate, what then will happen to brain cells? (2 points)

Tang-Schomer et al. (p. 1) explain that death of microtubules in the brain inhibits transport of nutrients that are required for its maintenance and hence resulting in its death.

  1. What are the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease? (2 points)

Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by memory impairment, intellectual disturbances such as in reasoning and perception and personality changes and deterioration in social skills that progress with time (National Institute on Aging, p. 1).


  1. Mrs. McCloud, a 62-year-old diabetic, has just been admitted to Southeast Medical Center Emergency Room. Her blood pH indicates that she is in severe acidosis, and measures are quickly instituted to bring her blood pH back within normal limits.
  2. Define pH and note the normal pH of blood. (2 points)

pH refers to the amount of hydrogen ions contained in a solution that results in their electromotive force. Schwalfenberg (p. 1) give the normal blood pH to be within the range of 7.35 and 7.45.

  1. What (specifically) might cause diabetic acidosis? (2 points)

The most prevalent cause of diabetic acidosis is infection (Yu, p. 558).

  1. What treatment(s) might Mrs. McCloud have received to regulate her blood pH? (1 point)

Mrs. McCloud was given intravenous fluid and insulin in order to restore her body fluid and blood sugar level within the normal range (Gooderick, Umesh & Sathis, p. 1).



Works Cited

Gooderick, Debbie, Umesh Dashora & Sathis Kumar. “Ketoacidosis in Type 2 Diabetes- Is It Type 1 and ½ Diabetes?” BMJ Case Reports 2011 (2011): bcr0720114460. PMC. Web. 24 Jan. 2016. 23 Jan. 2016.<>

Marieb, Elaine Nicpon, and Smith, Lori A. 2015. Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual Cat Version. Pearson College Div.

Moini, Jahangir. Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals. , 2016. Internet resource.

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. “High blood cholesterol: What you need to know.”  2001. Web. 23 Jan. 2016.<>

National Institute on Aging. ” About Alzheimer’s Disease: Symptoms.” Web. 23 Jan. 2016.<>

Schwalfenberg, Gerry K. “The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?” Journal of Environmental and Public Health2012 (2012): 727630. PMC. Web. 24 Jan. 2016. 23 Jan. 2016.<>

Tang-Schomer, Min D. et al. “Mechanical Breaking of Microtubules in Axons during Dynamic Stretch Injury Underlies Delayed Elasticity, Microtubule Disassembly, and Axon Degeneration.” The FASEB Journal 24.5 (2010): 1401–1410. PMC. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.<>

US Department of Health and Human Services. “Your guide to lowering your cholesterol with TLC.” NIH Publication 06-5235, 2005. Web. 23 Jan. 2016.<>






Looking for this or a Similar Assignment? Click below to Place your Order Instantly!