Human Anatomy and Physiology





Human Anatomy and Physiology

  1. Name the 9 (nine) abdominal regions, and list ALL the organs found in EACH region. (3 points)

The following are the nine abdominal regions and the respective organs found in each region (Marieb & Smith, p. 7-20; Moini, p. 18-19).


The Epigastric ( Contains organs in the upper middle region of the abdomen)

  • Large portion of the stomach
  • Parts of the left and right liver lobes

The left Lumbar (contains parts that lie in the middle left abdominal region)

  • Part of the colon
  • Parts of the small intestines

Hypogastric (Has organs that lie within the lower middle abdominal region).

  • Parts of the small intestines
  • Urinary bladder
  • The uterus in females


  • Part of the intestines
  • Parts of the Transverse Colon
  • The pancreas

Left  iliac (inguinal)

  • Left ovary in females
  • Parts of the colon
  • Parts of the small intestines

Right lumbar ( has organs lying in the middle right region of the abdomen)

  • Parts of the small intestines
  • Parts of the colon

Right iliac (inguinal)

  • Parts of the small intestines
  • Cecum
  • Right ovary in females
  • appendix

Right hypochondriac

  • The gall bladder
  • Right lobe of the liver

Left hypochondriac

  • Small portion of the stomach
  • Spleen
  • Portion of the colon


  1. Name the 4 (four) abdominal quadrants and list ALL the organs found in EACH quadrant. (2 points)

According to illustration given by Marieb and Smith (p. 7) and Moini (p. 18) the four abdominal quadrants and the organs found in them are as follows:


The Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)

  • Spleen
  • Portion of left Kidney
  • The transverse and descending colon parts
  • Left lobe of the liver
  • Body of the pancreas
  • Splenic flexure of the colon
  • Left adrenal gland


The Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)

  • Left ureter
  • Left kidney lower pole
  • Part of the descending colon
  • The bladder (when distended)
  • The uterus in females (when enlarged)
  • The salpinx and the ovary in females
  • Sigmoid colon
  • The left spermatic cord in males

The Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)

  • Duodenum
  • The head of the pancreas
  • The gall bladder
  • Right adrenal gland
  • Hepatic flexure of the colon
  • Part of the right kidney
  • Liver
  • Parts of the transverse and the descending colon

The Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)

  • The appendix and the cecum
  • The right kidney’s lower pole
  • Bladder (when distended)
  • Uterus in females (when enlarged)
  • The salpinx and the ovary in females
  • The right ureter
  • Parts of the ascending colon
  • Right spermatic cord in males


NOTE: For parts A and B, if one organ is found in more than one abdominal region or quadrant, describe WHICH PORTIONS of the organ(s) are found in each quadrant or region.

  1. Name AND describe IN DETAIL 2 specific passive transport mechanisms AND 2 specific active transport mechanisms used by cells. Compare and contrast these mechanisms. (5 points)

Passive transport refers to the movement of substances across a cell membrane in response to a concentration gradient that exists across it without the use of energy. Various mechanisms of passive transport include osmosis and facilitated diffusion (Marieb & Smith,p. 55). Osmosis refers to the transport of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane from a region where it is highly concentrated to a region of low concentration. On the other hand, facilitated diffusion refers to the movement of substances across a cell membrane with the aid of carrier molecules within the cell membrane.

Active transport involves the movement of substances against a concentration gradient and involves energy expenditure. Marieb and Smith (p. 62) explain that the mechanisms of active transport involve active transport and vesicular transport. Active transport involve the use of biochemical pumps to move substances across a membrane at the expense of energy. Vesicular transport involves transport of fluid containing macromolecules in membranous sacs, vesicles.

Passive transport mechanisms do not involve energy expenditure while active transport mechanisms involve the use of energy in the form of ATP. More so, active transport involves the movement of substances against a concentration gradient while in passive transport, substance movement along the concentration gradient.

  1. Although his cholesterol levels were not high, Mr. Davis read that cholesterol was “bad for his health”. So, he eliminated all foods and food products containing cholesterol from his diet.
  2. Name 3 specific foods or food products that contain high levels of cholesterol that Mr. Davis may have eliminated from his diet. (2 points)

Mr. Davis may have eliminated food such as meat, cheese and cream and related products (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, p. 1).

  1. Davis later found out that even after eliminating these foods completely from his diet, his cholesterol level only dropped by 20%. Why did it not drop more? (3 points)

According to US Department of Health and Human Services (p. 16), dietary change Accounts for only 20-30% change in cholesterol level. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (p. 1)  also explains that the cholesterol lost is affected by other factors apart from diet.


  1. Research shows that neurofibrillary tangles associated with the disintegration of microtubules are the primary cause of Alzheimer’s disease.
  2. Which cellular organelle is responsible for the production of microtubules? (1 point)

The Centrosome produces microtubules.

  1. If microtubules disintegrate, what then will happen to brain cells? (2 points)

Disintegration of the brain microtubules results in the death of brain cells as well as the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (Tang-Schomer, p.1).

  1. What are the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease? (2 points)

National Institute on Aging (p. 1) explains that the symptoms that characterize Alzheimer’s disease include such as memory problems, mild change of an individual’s personality and intellectual problems with the progress of the disease. The severity of these symptoms progresses with time until dementia.


  1. Mrs. McCloud, a 62-year-old diabetic, has just been admitted to Southeast Medical Center Emergency Room. Her blood pH indicates that she is in severe acidosis, and measures are quickly instituted to bring her blood pH back within normal limits.
  2. Define pH and note the normal pH of blood. (2 points)

pH is a measure of hydrogen ions in a solution. According to Schwalfenberg (p. 1) the normal blood pH ranges from 7.35 and 7.45.

  1. What (specifically) might cause diabetic acidosis? (2 points)

Accordint to Yu (p. 558), the most common cause of diabetic acidosis is infection.

  1. What treatment(s) might Mrs. McCloud have received to regulate her blood pH? (1 point)

According to Yu (p. 557), the most likely treatment that Mrs. McCloud might have received was intravenous fluid resuscitation and insulin. The fluid administered seeks to restore body fluid to its normal level due to its loss through such as vomiting and urination. On the other hand, insulin seeks to correct the level of blood sugar in the body.



Works Cited

Moini, Jahangir. Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals. , 2016. Internet resource.

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. ” High cholesterol: Does reducing the amount of fat in your diet help?”  2001. Web. 23 Jan. 2016.<>

National Institute on Aging. ” Alzheimer’s Disease Fact Sheet.” Web. 23 Jan. 2016.<>

Schwalfenberg, Gerry K. “The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?” Journal of Environmental and Public Health2012 (2012): 727630. PMC. Web. 24 Jan. 2016. 23 Jan. 2016.<>

Tang-Schomer, Min D. et al. “Mechanical Breaking of Microtubules in Axons during Dynamic Stretch Injury Underlies Delayed Elasticity, Microtubule Disassembly, and Axon Degeneration.” The FASEB Journal 24.5 (2010). PMC. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.<>

US Department of Health and Human Services. “Your guide to lowering your cholesterol with TLC.” NIH Publication 06-5235, 2005. Web. 23 Jan. 2016.<>

Yu, Catherine H.Y. “‘Safety’ Technology: A Hidden Cause of Diabetic Ketoacidosis.” CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal 184.5 (2012): 557–558. PMC. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.

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