How does the nature of a state’s civil-military relations influence the effectiveness of its armed forces

Introduction and background of civil-military relations.
Civil-military relations and strategic culture.
The new roles of Armed forces.[ put it as conclusion and show how it is changing “MDI” is a good example for that].
How to measure the effectiveness of the armed forces. Key point
Patterns of civil-military relations differ across political systems.
Civil‐military relations in Germany, the Middle East and North Africa [MENA].
Civil military relationships and Arab spring.[ Tunisia , Egypt and the Gulf]
Introduction and background of civil-military relations
The concept of civil‐military relations as an area of study, civil‐military relations is generally concerned with the relationship between the military and the civilian authorities, or in a broader sense between the military and society as a whole
Civil-military relations and strategic culture
Strategic culture is a way of explaining strategic behaviors, policies, traditions, and decisions made by the state and the military
The new roles of Armed forces
Defense of national territory , peacekeeping operations, security challenges, terrorism, drug smuggling , illegal migration, a wider domestic social and political role
How to measure the effectiveness of the armed forces
Military effectiveness-Political effectiveness
Objective and Subjective Civilian Control
Objective civilian control seeks to minimize the threat from military power by maximizing military professionalism which ultimately is based on military autonomy.
Patterns of civil-military relations differ across political systems
Advanced democracies -post-authoritarian regimes
Civil military relationships and Arab spring
the armed force which is loyal to a state rather than a certain regime seen, and sees itself, as an embodiment of the state.

What are Civil-Military Relations?
Brief history of Huntington, Janowitz, Sun Tzu, Mao Tse-Tung
Cottey, Edmunds & Fraser definition of CMR – general term, wide scope, 3 agents
1st Generation – civilian control of the military, Feaver’s ‘problematique,’ civilian supremacy.
2nd Generation – focus on democracies & governance, effective management of the armed forces, balance between control and deference to military expertise.
3rd Generation – maximizing military effectiveness of armed forces, lack of study into factors/variables.
Political Control V Military Autonomy
Military Autonomy – Sun Tzu, Jomini, Von Molkte, Powell
Political Control – Kennedy[?]
Clausewitz / Campbell – political nature of war, civilian supremacy, unequal dialogue, measure of military effectiveness tied to political objectives.
“Soldier & statesman combined in one person / member of cabinet” – military junta!?
Harmonious civil-military relations is fundamental, working towards same goal.
Clausewitz – ability to achieve political goals.
Effectiveness of armed forces measured by its ability to achieve what it is asked to by politicians.

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