Essay 2

Book: David Martínez (editor), The American Indian Intellectual Tradition: An Anthology of Writings from 1772 to 1972 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2011). *REQUIRED*

Format: 2½-3 pages, 1” margins, double-spaced, 10-12 pt font. Please do not add a cover sheet. Simply include your name, course number , and Essay 2 at the top of the page (adjusted left).

Also, no secondary sources are required. You need only refer to the reading assignments (and lectures and supporting material, eg videos, PowerPoints, when appropriate). However, whenever you paraphrase or quote from your textbook, please put the appropriate page number in parentheses at the end of your paraphrase or quotation (1). [If you are using an e-edition and the original pagination is not displayed, then in a footnote, please indicate that you are citing from the e-edition and which reader, eg Kindle, Adobe Digital, you used for this assignment. Thank you!]

Instructions: Making references to the authors read in Part 2 of your textbook, The American Indian Intellectual Tradition, namely La Flesche, Johnson, Winnemucca, Kellogg, Coolidge, Wheelock, Roe Cloud, Parker, Montezuma, Eastman, and Zitkala-Sa, answer the following questions:

1 How did Susette La Flesche portray the reservation system in “The Indian Question” (1880), in which she heavily criticized how Indian agents treated Indian people? Give two examples.

2 In turn, how was the Pyramid Lake Reservation, as portrayed by Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins (1883), an example of what La Flesche was talking about above, in particular her references to Indian agents like McMasters? Give two examples (you may refer to Indian agents other than McMasters).

3 Contrary to Indian Bureau expectations that Indians must assimilate into American society, Laura Cornelius Kellogg (1912) proposed a radically different approach to reservation policy. What did Kellogg mean by “industrial organization” and what are two reasons this would be beneficial for Indians on the reservation?

4 As examples of how Progressive American Indian intellectuals shifted the discussion from an “Indian Problem” (meaning race) to an “Indian Bureau Problem” (meaning law and policy), how did Dennison Wheelock (1913) and Carlos Montezuma (1915) portray the reservations in their respective writings? Give one example for each. In turn, explain why Charles Eastman (1915) thought that the communities of Metlakatla, Alaska and Santee, Nebraska were good examples of successful Indian communities?

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