Disparities Analysis Chart


Disparities Analysis Chart






Disparities Analysis Chart

Comparison of African American and Native Hawaiian

African American Native Hawaiian
1.      As at July 2014, the population was 4,2 08,913,139

2.      The age bracket of 20-35 years has the largest population.

1.      On the same date, the population was approximately 637, 71411

2.      The age bracket of 20-35 years has the largest population.

Cultural norms
1.      They consume a huge amount of the junk food such as chicken and pork.

2.      Also, consume huge amounts of carbohydrates such as potatoes and beans.

3.      Most of the African Americans who stay in the rural areas prefer using the traditional healing methods.

1.      Most of them do not meet the recommended eating habit for fiber, fruit, vegetables, and vitamins.

2.      They take huge amount of calories.

                                                               Religious and spiritual beliefs
1.      They believe that God is responsible for spiritual and physical health.

2.      God is always called to intervene during sickness.

1.      Most discredit the use of the Western medicalisation.

2.      There is the existence of the traditional healers who use herbs, prayers and the spiritual interventions to medical problems.


Primary insurance coverage
1.      In December 2013, approximately, 82.2% had health insurance cover. 1.      In December 2013, approximately, 82.1% of the native Hawaiians had an insurance cover.
1.      The average education level is High School diploma. 1.      The average education level is High School diploma.
Medical Conditions
1.      Heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and diabetes are common 1.      Diabetes, heart disease and cancer are common
1.      Encouraging many of the people to have a health coverage insurance scheme

2.      Creating awareness and services even to rural areas

1.      Address of the conflict between the tradition and modern healing methods.

2.      Promoting the health providers to learn the culture of the native Hawaiians





There are similarities between African Americans and Native Hawaiians in relation to the access of healthcare. It is evident that both of the races lifestyles ad diets behaviors put them into the risks of getting diseases. Therefore, it is prudent to evaluate their access to the health services. Peters Aroian and Flack (2006) noted that despite that 33.5% of the African Americans were affected by hypertension they were unwilling to participate in the Hypertension-behavior management. McEligot et al. (2012) explained that there has been mistake in target of the Native Hawaiians health. Native Hawaiians have been affected by obesity, cancer, and dietary problems. However, most of the health education that address these risks have been directed to Hawaii and not in Southern California where most of Native Hawaiians reside. Both the African Americans and the Native Hawaiians have not appreciated the importance of the heath education. Notably, most of them can easily access the health facilities since they have a health insurance cover. 82.2% of the African Americans have the health insurance cover and is slightly higher than the Native Hawaiians by 0.1%. Moreover, an equal proportion of the African Americans and Native Hawaiians remind that they both have a high school average level of the education.

Differences in the access of the health services also exist among the African Americans and the Native Hawaiians. Due to the beliefs in God as the physical and the spiritual healer, there is a probability that the African Americans would visit a hospital. They believe that God uses the doctors as an instrument of healing. Therefore, they have the behavior of visiting the modern hospitals (Johnson, Elbert‐Avila & Tulsky, 2005). Most of the Hawaiians do not appreciate the presence of the modern medication. They prefer using the traditional healing methods. The Native Hawaiians have a great emphasis towards life. They have a belief that without health, there is no life. Instead, of going to the modern hospitals, they believe in keeping peace with gods, family members and self to live a happy life. Most of the times, they prefer going to the Hawaiian healer known as Kahunas (Hilgenkamp & Pescaia, 2003).

Health care professionals can increase trust from the African Americans and the Native Hawaiians by addressing their medical difficulties. In the Africans, it was observed that the most common diseases include hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. All these medical conditions are associated with certain lifestyle and types of the diet. Moreover, there are medical conditions such as diabetes common among the Native Hawaiians. Similarly, the medical problems among the Native Hawaiians are caused by the poor diet. The health professionals should address some medical problems that can be managed simply by the consumption of a balanced diet. Moreover, the health professionals should consider the alignment of their services with the culture of the Native Hawaiians.

Cultural proficiency among the healthcare professionals is prudent in mitigating the challenges faced in providing the health services to the African Americans and the Native Hawaiians. First, cultural proficiency would help the health professionals to identify the core causes of the common medical problems to these communities. For instance, the African Americans have a behavior of taking cereals, chickens, and pork. The food that they take has the probability of resulting into obesity. The obesity makes them prone to diabetes and the heart diseases. The awareness would help the health professionals to address the cause of the medical problems.

Second, cultural proficiency would facilitate the health professionals to align their treatment with the beliefs of a given community. The community beliefs may undermine or promote the provision of the health care. For instance, the African Americans highly have a belief in the Gods healing power. In some instances, some of them can heavily rely on the power of prayers in healing. Nevertheless, the health professionals can use the same religious beliefs to encourage and motivate their patients (Watkins, 2013). For instance, doctors can integrate the facts on the religion to encourage the patients to undergo treatment. When a health profession is aware of the cultural beliefs, he would have the ability to understand how to deal with the client.

Third, the health professionals would be aware of how the health services van be aligned with the traditional healing methods in the communities. For instance, the traditional healing methods of the Native Hawaiians have interconnections with the spiritual life of the people. Therefore, the medical practitioner needs to be aware that the cultural beliefs in such a community are rooted. Provisions of health services might face resistance from such a community. When dealing with the Native Hawaiians, it would be vital to ensure that their culture is respected. By sharing the medical knowledge with the Native Hawaiians, it would be possible for them to live a healthier life (Hilgenkamp & Pescaia, 2003).

It is fundamental to understand the differences between communities. Health professionals would offer specialized care to the different racial groups living in the USA. Health professionals should ensure that they are culturally competent to facilitate the provision of quality health care services.









Hilgenkamp, K., & Pescaia, C. (2003). Traditional Hawaiian healing and Western influence. Californian Journal of Health Promotion, 1, 34-39.

Johnson, K. S., Elbert‐Avila, K. I., & Tulsky, J. A. (2005). The influence of spiritual beliefs and practices on the treatment preferences of African Americans: a review of the literature. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 711-719.

McEligot, A. J., McMullin, J., Pang, K. A., Bone, M., Winston, S., Ngewa, R., & Tanjasiri, S. P. (2012). Dietary Intakes, Obesity and Health Behaviors in Native Hawaiians Residing in Southern California. Hawai’i Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 71(5), 124.

Peters, R. M., Aroian, K. J., & Flack, J. M. (2006). African American culture and hypertension prevention. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 28(7), 831-854.

United States Census Bureau,. (2016). Population estimates, July 1, 2015,  (V2015). Retrieved 23 January 2016, from

Watkins, Y. J., Quinn, L. T., Ruggiero, L., Quinn, M. T., & Choi, Y. K. (2013). Spiritual and Religious Beliefs and Practices and Social Support’s Relationship to Diabetes Self-Care Activities in African Americans. The Diabetes Educator, 0145721713475843

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