Charles Bradley is a Finance student who loves to play the stock market in his spare time. He likes the thrill of rapid price movements and he knows that if he can catch the right price to buy and sell he will make lot of money. Charles has a strong interest in irrational financial decision making and the systematic errors that market participants make. These errors do not only affect stock prices and returns, they also create market inefficiencies. Charles is convinced that at some time or another he will be able to take advantage of these inefficiencies.

Charles is currently engaged in a research project on anchoring. Anchoring is a term used in psychology to describe the common human tendency to rely too heavily, or anchor, on specific information when making decisions, even though this information may have no logical relevance to the decision at hand. People often anchor, or overly rely, on a specific value – for instance a recent stock price – and then adjust to that value; once the anchor is set there is a bias toward that anchor. Along these lines, investors frequently invest in the stocks of companies that have fallen considerably in a very short amount of time. In this case, investors are anchoring on a recent “high” that the stock has achieved and consequently believe that the drop in price provides an opportunity to buy the stock at a discount.

Charles sometimes feels that anchoring is like driving a car only by looking in the rear view mirror; it will only show you what is behind you. He believes that if one drives one’s car based only on what one sees in the rear view mirror, one will end up with an accident. “In the late 1990s, for example, the stock market was going up and investors simply jumped on the bandwagon and kept buying more and more shares,” Charles explains to his roommate and best friend David. “Even though this resulted in a stock market bubble, investors’ general tendency was to just leave things be without making the effort to take any proper decisions with respect to asset allocation and risk—decisions that could have helped them to fare better in the future, when the markets turned. If investors anchor themselves to the idea that the market will keep going up, they will inevitably find themselves in a risk category that isn’t the right fit for them, and they’ll be putting themselves at a  great risk when that market turns”, Charles continued. “Conversely, in a period of prolonged market downturn, people tend to anchor themselves to the idea that stock prices are just going to keep going down. This leads to an absolute disregard for investing in the equity market, and results in a situation where individuals end up in a risk category that does not fit them either.”

Charles believes that what we are currently seeing is negative anchoring, where people are framing their investments in the context of the most recent financial crisis and all the negative news that they are constantly getting about the economy, unemployment, bankruptcies and the like.

Charles’ research project focuses on whether and how market participants’ long-term stock return expectations are influenced by anchoring effects and to what extent expertise reduces these effects. After having developed a research proposal and a problem statement Charles is now ready to engage in a critical review of the literature.


  1. Explain the various functions of the critical literature review that Charles is about to take on.
  2. “The first step of a literature review includes the identification of the various unpublished and published materials that are available on the topic of interest and gaining access to these.” Discuss at least three different data sources that Charles could use and explain how Charles will benefit from using these specific data sources.
  3. Spend time on becoming familiar with the online resources that AUE library provides.
  4. Present an overview of the electronic resources your library provides.
  5. Which of these electronic resources would you use if you were Charles?
  6. Compile a bibliography on anchoring effects in stock return estimates. 5-7 articles
  7. Based on your bibliography write a literature review on anchoring effects in stock return estimates.


  1. Before answering the questions, please put one paragraph of an opening summery/abstract in the beginning, and conclusion of the case at the end.
  2. Words limit 1000-1200 words (excluding references)
  3. Similarity shall be less than 10 percent.
  4. Time new romans 1.5-line space, heading bold.
  5. Submit only MS word file on portal.
  6. This work is in individual
  7. Late submission will case marks deduction as discussed during the class
  8. Read at least five to seven articles about the topic and refer them inside the text using APA format from google scholar

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