find an example of one of the three types of claims (frequency, association, or causal) in a research description that was written for a general audience. You can use any source you like – for example, a study you read about in a newspaper; one you heard described in a podcast; etc. But make sure that either (1) the story gives you enough information to evaluate the validity of the claim being made, or (2) you can find the original research report that the story is describing. The story should be in some way linked to either child/adolescent or adult development, broadly construed. If you aren’t sure where to start, you can check the blogs and press releases of the following organizations; “health” sections of newspapers or news shows are also good places to look:
Society for Research on Child Development: https://www.srcd.org/news
The Gerontological Society: https://www.geron.org/press-room/press-releases
The American Psychological Society: https://www.apa.org/monitor/index
The Association for Psychological Science: https://www.psychologicalscience.org/news
1. Provide both a link to the source that you found, and the exact quote of the claim that you identified (e.g. – is the claim in the headline? A quote in the article? etc.)
1. EXAMPLE: I found this study in the New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/26/well/move/exercise-may-boost-your-vaccine-response.html. The Claim is in the headline: “Exercise may boost your vaccine response”.
2. Identify the type of claim (frequency, association, causal) based on the language being used in the quote. Be sure to provide justification for your identification.
1. EXAMPLE: This claim is a causal claim. The verb “boost” is a causal verb; it implies that if you increase the amount you exercise, you can increase the efficacy of the vaccine. Even though they use the qualifier “may”, that doesn’t negate the fact that they used a causal verb.
3. Do you think that claim is accurate? Base your decision on the characteristics of the study.
1. EXAMPLE: The claim as stated in the headline is not accurate. In order to make a causal claim, people would have to be randomly assigned to either exercise or not before getting a vaccine. Neither of the two studies described did this. The first study compared athletes to non-athletes. The second compared athletes who exercised before their flu shot to those who didn’t, but the groups weren’t randomly assigned.
Example of assignment: (do not use this one or copy it please, just use as guide only) :
“Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood”
” I found this research article in the “US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health.” The claim is a quote in the article: “In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity.”
This claim is an association claim. The article is claiming that older adults who exercise daily tend to have better life satisfaction. The verb “appears” is pointing to an association between life satisfaction and exercise in older adults, however, there are many other contributing confounds that could be contributing to increased life satisfaction such as a fulfilling spouse and health family. This does not mean that there is not necessarily a positive association between physical activity and life satisfaction, but there is most likely other things contributing.
I think this claim is accurate because there have been numerous studies on how physical activity is great for anyone’s health and helps the body release happy hormones, stabilize blood sugar, increase cardiovascular health and so much more. The article is not claiming that physical activity is the only thing contributing to life satisfaction, but that physical activity “appears” to contribute to life satisfaction which is accurate. ”