Individual Assignment 2: Questions about Ethics
Main ethical challenges for managers working on international projects
Ethics have been an important area of project management. These ethical requirements in project management are often faced with various challenges. Managers working on international projects are expected to face both major and numerous ethical challenges relating to the high number of workers and the type of work they handle. The section below focuses on some of the primary ethical challenges to the managers
Corruption is one of the ethical challenges that managers working on international projects encounter. The issue of corruption is rampant in many countries and has proven problematic to solve. People tend to offer bribes to get favors such as being hired or promoted. Companies are also involved in corruption as they attempt to gain a competitive edge compared to their competitors. As a result, a manager will encounter ethical challenges in activities such as the hiring of employees and selecting appropriate companies for partnership or provision of raw materials. A manager has to observe transparency and honesty to overcome this ethical challenge.
Another main challenge that managers working on international projects face relates to the environment. Avoiding environmental degradation is a significant requirement in any working situation. Environmental protection has been greatly advocated for at both national and international level through codes of conduct that managers ought to observe. Despite the set guidelines, managers are tempted to violate them to save cost on their projects. Therefore, they engage in activities that destroy the environment such as damping of waste in wetlands among others.
Health and safety is another ethical challenge that international managers in project management face. Since managers ought to oversee a project until its completion, they have to ensure that all employees and members of the public are safe from any accident or health hazards. However, managers sometimes compromise on this requirement to meet deadlines or boost profits. For instance, they may fail to protect edges and sides of construction leading to fall of either the employees or workers. Due to the costs involved, a manager may also fail to label chemicals correctly leading to health hazards among the employees.
Another ethical challenge to international managers relates to the treatment of employees. It is the responsibility of a manager to ensure that occupational safety is affected. The manager is also supposed to protect employees from any form of discrimination as employees from various backgrounds are involved in international projects. Fair pay and sharing of benefits for work are other elements that ensure effective treatment of employees. However, project managers have been involved in the unfair treatment of their employees. Late payment and unequal distribution of the amount of salary for certain types of activities are some of the violations that managers make.
Importance of trust in project management
In simple terms, trust is the aspect of believing that another person has good intentions within a specific setting or towards a colleague. With the many activities involved in project management, managers and employees have to have an effective relationship based on trust. The section below highlights the various aspects relating to the importance of trust in project management.
Trust plays an essential role in ensuring that there is timely and effective communication in a bid to ensure transparency. Communication is essential in project management in coordinating team members. All employees at any level of the project ought to be aware the objectives of the management team; a situation that can only be achieved through effective communication. Trust breaks the barriers of communication between all members in the project such that an employer can share his ideas with the manager. Despite the differences in education, skills and experience, people of all levels in the project can have an easy, honest and open communication. Effective communication contributes to boosting coordination that consequently helps in improving the outcome of the project.
Trust is also crucial in the decision-making process of managers in project management. Trust makes any decision-making process regarding the project easier and quicker. It ensures that people believe in each other; hence, they would not perform an action that may hurt or violate the rights of another person. The decision-making process is critical since those involved have to ensure that they analyze the effect that the decisions they make have on others. Since trust eliminates any chances of hidden agendas in the process, decision making, therefore, becomes easier and quicker.
Trust is also crucial in project management as it enhances team morale. Trust makes employees to be focused toward achieving a common goal. Since a project involves various activities that contribute to its completion, members at any level have to meet set targets and deadlines. Trust ensures that each member is motivated towards meeting the requirements of the project. A member also tends to be more careful to ensure that he or she makes effective contribution to avoid jeopardizing the outcome of the project. In case a mistake occurs where trust exists, a member ensures that it is rectified in time.
Another importance of trust in project management concerns the fact that it increases the chances of success in a given project. In order for a project to succeed, there is need for trust between the various stakeholders. In reference to the fact that there is effective communication among those involved in a project, discovering and implementing cost-saving ideas contribute to the successful completion of a project. Making the right decisions and within a shorter period minimize possible risks thus ensuring that a project is successful.
Main ethical challenges in the use of information technology (ie emails, exchange/sharing data etc) in project management
Advance in the field of information technology has made a substantial contribution in project management. The process has improved communication, storage of data and monitoring of work progress among other aspects. Just like in any other field, project management relies on information technology. However, it is important to note that introduction of new scientific knowledge has resulted in ethical challenges. The section below focuses on the main ethical challenges associated with the use of information technology in project management.
It is important to note that technology presents an inherent problem of privacy violation. The right to privacy is essential to all people. Sensitive information about a person should not be disclosed to a third party without a person’s consent. Since project management involves employees sharing personal data, there have been cases of illegal use of people’s data. Managers and other employers have been involved in activities that relate to abuse of personal data and hence a violation of people’s privacy.
Hacking is another ethical challenge in the information technology in project management. Hacking is the process by which a person obtains unauthorized access to information with a malicious intent through the use of computer applications. In reference to the fact that project management has become dependent on information technology, it is, therefore, prone to this ethical issue. Hackers are developing numerous ways to manipulate data used in project management and which is stored in systems. There are also instances where rival companies hack into their competitor’s systems to steal information.
Technology has also presented the problem of counterfeit documents. Technology allows for easy generation of generic documents in various fields. There have been cases where people have been forging documents to gain benefits unfairly or get employment without the required qualifications for specified posts in project management. There has also been theft of property due to forgery of signatures. Employment of incompetent people affects the effectiveness of project management. Theft of property also plagues the progress of this field.
Addiction regarding the use of social sites or gaming sites is another area of concern. Technology has made it easy for people to play games using such as their phones, computers or tablets. Project management requires concentration to attain successful completion of the activities involved. Excessive use of social and gaming sites during leisure time leads to addiction of the users. Consequently, they may be tempted to use these sites while at work. This affects their concentration compromising the effectiveness in this field.
Another ethical challenge relating to information technology in project management is job displacement. Technological advancements such as use of robots has resulted in the need of less workers in project management field. This has necessitated laying off of some employees. Consequently, due to the lack of justification of laying off of some of the workers, project managers have been involved in such as increasing pressure on workers with the intention of making them quit: this practice is unethical.