Human Factor

The research paper should discuss these several things.
1 – Discuss and manage fatigue and stress.
2 – Discuss all aspects required to identify and manage associated problems with the use of alcohol and different types of drugs in the work place?
3 – Discuss the differences between team based cooperation and coordination what are the positive or negatives of these practices.




Human Factor

Human beings encounter stress and fatigue in their daily lives. Stress can either be positive or negative depending on how an individual responds to a particular event in their lives. If the stress is within a person’s comfort zone, it is considered positive and a source of motivation. However, when the stress overwhelms a person, it can cause damage to their health, relationships, productivity and emotions.

The sources of these stressors can either be physiological or psychological depending on the impact they create.They include environmental stressors, life changes, daily stress events, chemical stressors such as drugs, social stressors and workplace stressors. The stressors trigger mental, physical or chemical responses from an individual (Edwards & Daryl, 2014). Upon observation of these responses, it is easy to identify a person experiencing stress.  Physical symptoms include aches, pains, rapid heartbeats, nausea, diarrhea, chest pains and frequent pains. Mental or cognitive responses include memory problems, anxiety, and lack of concentration, constant worries and poor judgment.  Emotional and behavioral symptoms are both categorized as chemical responses which result from internal changes.

Cognitive behavior therapy is one major way of managing stress (Edwards & Daryl, 2014). The therapy sessions play a key role in inculcating positive mindset to an individual. It encourages constructive thoughts and optimism when one is faced by various challenging events in their lives. In addition to cognitive behavior therapy, there are other ways of coping and managing stress. Physical exercises relieve the body off any accumulated stress. Activities such as listening to music, going for a walk or a swim, connecting and sharing joyous moments with friends is also highly encouraged as a way of coping with stress. Moreover, a person under stress should strive to live a healthy lifestyle, with enough sleep and away from drugs which can further aggravate the stress and fatigue leading to complications.

Alcohol and Drug abuse is commonly associated with stress. Most people experiencing stressful events especially in their work places result to drug abuse as a way of ‘cooling down’. In work places, aspects that are highly required include alertness, accuracy and quick reflexes. However, upon substance abuse, these aspects are greatly affected. In addition, drug abuse at work affects performance of an individual due to hangover or withdrawal effects. Absenteeism, lack of concentration, and addiction are also associated with abuse of drugs (Raymond, 2013).

Several aspects play key role in helping to identify someone under the influence of drugs.  Behavior change is one of the main aspects. A person abusing drugs shows major changes in his behavior. Some people become aggressive, defensive, easily angered or even antisocial.  The antisocial behavior is very common in work places. Physical or health condition of a drug abuser is quite defective. For example, the person may have bloodshot eyes, nosebleeds, tremors or seizures in elevated levels. Psychologically, the employee or employer under drug abuse may have mood swings, change in personality, attitude and withdrawn.

To manage drug abuse in work places, the employees and employers should work together and design policies which clearly outline the code of behavior that is acceptable and that which is not.  These policies will enable employees to help their colleagues whenever they are troubled (Raymond, 2013). A well planned programme and training about occupational health and safety issues should be implemented to ensure that the staffs are in a position to handle any substance abuse at their work place.

Through team based co operations, the staffs are responsible for each other’s welfare all with a common goal. All the employees are involved in decision making and thus do not feel left out. Team work is a highly effective way of dealing with emerging problems in the work environment. However, team based cooperation has its disadvantages. Firstly, the system is decentralized thus causing problems in the control and coordination within the management. In addition, team based cooperation does not recognize individual achievement and thus causes loss of morale among the employees. Recognition of an individual’s performance is very essential in providing motivation among the employees and is also a key factor when determining compensation (Adrian, 2012).





Adrian F. (2012). The Psychology of Behavior at Work: The Individual in the Organization. Psychology Press, U.K.

Edwards & Daryl. (2014).The Psychology of Stress: What’s behind your Stress and How to Deal With It. Maxhouse Publishers, New York.

Raymond G. (2013). Drugs across the Spectrum. Cengage Learning, USA.

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