Over the years, humankind has had the urge to achieve optimal health. Consequently, theories and diverse categories of therapies arose with scientific development of medicine taking an upper hand (Gray, 2000, p.1). Treatment has become more dependent on technology and more subjective to particular body parts. However, the germ theory that relates to scientific medicine has faced rebellion since mid-1900’s. Other concepts of treatment have consequently resurfaced in response to the desire to achieve optimal health. These concepts include such as the nutrition and exercise in attaining good health.

Despite the various concepts formulated to help achieve good health, the massive population has continued to suffer from chronic diseases. The current treatment or regimes to ensure good health has been shown to facilitate natural body functioning. However, the prevalent occurrence of the chronic diseases requires methods to that will enable the body to heal efficiently. According to Gray (2000, p. 3), this shift in the desire of medicine has seen the change in medicine from pure scientific to that based on empirical observation. This shift in the type of medication has seen the revitalization of homeopathy. According to Owen (2007, p. 19), homeopathy is based on the assertion that ‘like cures like’. Samuel Hahnemann formulated the concept of homeopathy.

The application of homeopathy saw the rise of miasmatic theory. The theory arose due to the recurrence of chronic diseases after their treatment. According to Loukas (2005, p. 1), Hahnemann observed that disease-causing particles in the atmosphere caused chronic diseases. Hahnemann also found that the diseases would recur after the initial treatment. Hahnemann coined the word miasm that referred to obstacles that prevented treatment of the diseases. Hahnemann argued that this barrier was an infection that caused diseases, which he called miasms. Hahnemann stipulated three miasms in his theory. These miasms included sycotic, psoric and syphilitic. The theory of miasma explains that the three factors can cause diseases. Syphilis and Sycosis caused sexually transmitted diseases. On the other hand, psoric was associated with non-venereal diseases.

There are various degenerative diseases associated with cancer (Ames, Shigenaga & Hagen, 1993, p. 7915).  Such degenerative diseases involve such as cardiovascular diseases, brain dysfunction, and cancer. In his explanation, Hahnemann stipulated that chronic miasms cause these diseases. The miasms interfered with the normal body healing process from acute infections and hence causing a recurrence of the diseases later. This paper seeks to explore applicability and importance of the theory of miasmatic as proposed by Hahnemann in the treatment of chronic degenerative diseases.

Importance of miasmatic theory

The miasmatic theory is indispensable in the treatment of chronic diseases in homeopathy. In ascertaining the essence of miasmatic theory, it is essential to understand it. As earlier stated, the concept of miasm was categorized into threefold. These included the psora, syphilis, and sycosis. According to Hahnemann, the above causatives were elementary for every disease. In his theory, Hahnemann stipulates that the infection may result from infection by a pathogenic agent with spiritual, physical and non-physical components. The infection then penetrates the human being over the time causing manifestation later (Holtkamp, 2012, p. 1). The essence of miasmatic theory in the treatment of chronic diseases in both scientific and homeopathy can be embraced through the study of epigenetic among other factors.

Epigenetic and the Miasm Theory

In appreciating the role of miasm, theory in the treatment of degenerative diseases requires establishing an interrelationship of the theory and the diseases. This paper considers the concept of miasm, epigenetic and the role of epigenetic in degenerative diseases.

The miasmatic theory

The concept of miasm is as earlier highlighted. It comprises three elements that are perceived to be causatives of diseases. The concept of miasm is as earlier discussed in the introduction part. The theory is based on infection with a contagion that then penetrates the interior of a person. After penetration of the interior, there is manifestation of the contagion as a disease. The contagion results from the interaction with the environment. In his stipulation of the theory, Hahnemann postulated for psora as being the primary cause of all the chronic diseases.

Epigenetic Concept

Various controversies have been associated with the theory of miasma previously. The advent of epigenetic has offered more validation of Hahnemann’s theory of miasma (Tao). Epigenetic concerns with studying external aspects that influence gene expression or their activation and deactivation. Tao argues that epigenetic are capable of occurring in a single person or being inherited. Exposure to the immediate environment has been shown to influence gene expression in human kind (Degroote, 2012, p. 76). Moreover, Detels, Gulliford, Abdool, and Tan (2015, p. 824) also states that environment may cause manifestation of genetic diseases. In his argument, Degroote argues that several factors are capable of affecting gene expression. These factors are such as nutrition, infections, aging, and drugs.

According to Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán (2015, p. 2), epigenetics relates to gene expression in the form of modification of histone proteins or DNA. Histone modification results in the activation or suppression of transcription of the gene. The modifications may take the form of methylation and acetylation of DNA or the histones. Epigenetic have been associated with the chronic degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases (Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán, 2015, p. 4).

Epigenetic and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)

AD is a degenerative disease that affects the brain. AD presents itself in the form of cognitive impairment and loss of memory. It is associated with environmental factors, genetics, and social factors. According to Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán (2015, p. 4), the AD can be associated with diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. AD has been linked to epigenetic changes (Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán, 2015, p. 5). Moreover, epigenetic have also been associated with maintenance of memory that is impaired in the case of AD. According to Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán (2015, p. 6), AD is currently incurable. However, therapies based on epigenetic has shown better potency in its treatment.

There is a strong relationship between AD and diet. Stress has also been associated with AD (Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán, 2015, p. 6). Concerning this, food rich in such as nuts, legumes, and olive oils has been shown to be effective in reducing the risk of AD infection.

Interrelation of Parkinson’s diseases (PD) with epigenetic

PD is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases.  It is manifested in the form of bradykinesia, tremor, and instability of posture. It results from loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra (Coppedè, 2014, p. 1). The disease is inherited in agreement with the Mendelian concept. The diseases have been associated with histone modifications.

Epigenetics have been shown to play role in the pathogenesis of the PD disease (Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán, 2015, p. 6). This relation of PD is due to the modification of histones in PD. In this case, DNA methylation has been associated with changes in the histones observed in PD patients. Methylation of alpha-synuclein is the primary factor that causes PD. The alteration in the methylation on α-synuclein cause changes in the structure of the resulting protein or its overexpression. Consequently, the proteins become aggregated with time causing the manifestation of the disease that progresses with time. Epigenetic play role in the PD through the interaction of α-synuclein and the histones. α-synuclein binds to histone 3 causing its acetylation.

According to Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán (2015, p. 6), therapy based on epigenetic has also shown success in the case of PD. Regarding this, therapy based on antioxidants and nutrition have proved to increase the dormancy of PD in patients.

Epigenetic and Epilepsy

Epilepsy is another common chronic degenerative disease. The diseases result from uncontrolled electrical discharges in the amygdala, hippocampus, and the piriform cortex. The electrical charges cause destruction to the brain and cause seizures (Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán, 2015, p. 7).

According to Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán (2015, p. 8), diet has been associated with treatment of epilepsy. The acceptance of nutrition in the control of epilepsy implies that there is a correlation of the disease with the environment. Moreover, exercise has been shown to play a crucial role in the control of epilepsy. The role of exercise in epilepsy control further implies that environmental input are related to the pathology. Restating the previous statement implies that, epigenetic play an essential role in the onset and progression of chronic diseases.

Interrelation of epigenetic

The above discussions relate some of the most prevalent chronic degenerative diseases with epigenetic. Revisiting the definition of epigenetic, it can be simplified as the interaction of environment and the expression of genes. In this case, epigenetic can be restated as the determination of the way the environment determines the expression of the genes in a person. Therefore, it would be prudent to infer that the environment plays a critical role in the activation or suppression of genes.

Moreover, Landgrave-Gómez, Mercado-Gómez and Guevara-Guzmán (2015, p. 8) observes that the environment is the primary causative agent of most prevalent degenerative diseases. In this, Landgrave-Gómez and colleagues state that epigenetic enzymes vary depending on the influence of the environment. An extrapolation of this statement would imply that lifestyle is essential in the regulation of most degenerative diseases. The concept of the change of neurons in the chronic degenerative diseases is unclear, but the role of the environment is indispensable in explaining their pathology.

The theory of miasma, as described earlier, accounts for the onset of chronic diseases due to environmental factors that affect a person’s life. Hahnemann stated that chronic diseases are caused by contagions present in the environment (Holtkamp, 2012, p. 1). The contagion would then penetrate the body gradually until its manifestation by an individual. In this case, the theory acknowledges the environment to be the primary causative agent for the chronic diseases.

Degroote (2012, p. 78) accounts for the relationship of epigenetic with the concept of miasma. In inferring this, Degroote accounts for the flow of genomic information in epigenetic as being similar to the that seen in the miasma concept. This inference implies that the concept of miasma is similar to that of epigenetic. Therefore, the concept of miasma can be explained through epigenetic. As earlier discussed, epigenetic have been shown to be indispensable in understanding the pathology and in the treatment of chronic degenerative diseases. Therefore, the miasma theory would be essential chronic diseases treatment in homeopathy.

Homeopathy is the medical science that is based on the stimulation of the body to heal itself (Gray, 2000, p. 7). Homeopathy requires the identification of the cause of disease. The miasm theory by Hahnemann accounts for the role of environment in the causation of chronic degenerative disease that has been confirmed by the most recent studies of epigenetic. This stipulation by Hahnemann implies that the miasm theory would be essential in understanding the cause of the diseases to administer an effective homeopathic treatment regime.

Moreover, the applicability of miasmatic theory has been accounted for in chronic degenerative diseases and has been accredited to help science understand disease causative agents (Ullman, 1991, p 162). Ullman accounts for the increased aluminum concentrations in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The increased concentration of aluminum in the case of AD has been acknowledged as a possible cause of the disease. Consequently, homeopaths have gone forth and encouraged their patients to avoid using aluminum cookware (Ullman, 1991, p. 163). The acknowledgment of the role of aluminum in AD is an acknowledgment of the possible use of miasmatic theory in understanding and treatment of chronic degenerative diseases.

A study by Campbell and Junshi (1994), shows am interrelation of chronic degenerative diseases with diet. This study can be perceived as an extrapolation of the miasmatic theory, which correlates the environment with degenerative diseases. The predisposition or suppression of onset of the onset of the diseases by food acts as the miasmatic force from the environment. Moreover, the miasmatic theory acknowledges that chronic diseases may be attributed to inheritance. Hahnemann stipulated that the predisposition of a person to being infected with a chronic disease could be passed on over the years. Genetically, chronic diseases can be passed over the years. According to Izzotti (2003, p. 145), chronic degenerative diseases can be transmitted genetically.

Current molecular studies have acknowledged the role of environment in the predisposition of people to chronic degenerative diseases. Nieoullon (2011, p. 175) accounts for the role of environment in shaping the genetic susceptibility of various people to degenerative diseases. The acknowledgment of the environmental role in degenerative diseases further supports the applicability of the miasmatic theory. Moreover, most homeopaths discredit the role of miasmatic theory in the treatment of chronic diseases due to its subjective nature. According to Holtkamp (2012, p. 2) accounts for the failure of the theory due to its assertion that all chronic diseases result from psora. However, Little (p. 128), discredits this inference. Little explains that Hahnemann did not limit his theory to its three elements. According to Little, Hahnemann observed that the three components were the most prevalent in Europe at the time of conducting his study.


The discussions above tries to infer the applicability of miasmatic theory in the treatment of chronic degenerative diseases. According to miasmatic theory, psora is the primary cause of all the chronic diseases. Moreover, the theory accounts for the existence of an equilibrium between causative agents of diseases, the host, and the environment. Hereditary factors have been accredited as the primary causative agents of the diseases. Acknowledgment of the hereditary factors as the primary causative agents of the chronic diseases is per Hahnemann’s stipulation (Ghosh, 2015, p. 4).

Chronic diseases also show variance in their manifestation. Treatment should, therefore, be based on the causative agent. Following the miasmatic theory, the causative agent is the miasm. In other words, treatment of chronic diseases requires the elimination of the miasm. Therefore, any homeopathic therapy that does not base its treatment on miasmatic theory will be ineffective in treating degenerative diseases. Therefore, it is prudent to infer that miasmatic theory is invaluable in the treatment of chronic degenerative diseases in homeopathy. Moreover, the theory has also been shown to contribute the scientific understanding on chronic treatment.






The word count is 2354 (Two thousand, three hundred and fifty four)




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