Applied Buyer Behaviour



See attached documents. There is a sample report attached, Use exactly the same structure, models and themes. The two ads I chosen is Heineken walk in closet:


Carlsberg dream apartment:


Buyer Behaviour – Summative Assignment

100% Individual coursework

Choose an advert or advertising campaign you have seen.  It can be taken from any media and can be something you thought was really effective or not.  Remember this is all about how you perceive things and you need to justify every point you make!

You will need to consider:

WHO?  Who is the advert targeted at? Paint a picture of the consumer using your knowledge of segmentation variables.

WHAT?  What brand or services are being offered?  What are the features and benefits?

WHEN?  For what occasion is the product/service being advertised for?  Is seasonality involved?

WHERE?  Where is the advert positioned?  Is this important?

WHY?  Is the advertiser informing/selling?

Perception – Colours used/text/models used/celebrity endorsers.  Are these used correctly in your opinion?

Buyer Process – What stage of the buyer process is your advert aimed at?

Involvement Levels/Risk Perception?  Are they high, medium or low?  What types of risk are displayed?

Marketing Mix elements:

  • Product – what are the features and benefits? How effectively does the advert communicate the brand to you?
  • Pricing – do the adverts contain information about pricing? Why / why not?


  • Place – what distribution strategies are being used in your industry? How much information (if any) is given about this in the advert? Does the advert tell you anything about distribution?
  • Promotion – What are the promotional objectives and how effectively are they achieved in your opinion? What does the choice of media tell you about the promotion strategy of the company?


Critique and recommendations– you should conclude with a critique of the approach the advertiser has taken and make some recommendations. Do not simply describe what the advertiser has done or summarise what you have already said in your report. A critique is a critical review in which you give an evaluation, stating what you think is good and what you think could be improved. If you think the advert is good, what is it that is good about it? If you think the advert is bad, why is it bad and how could it be improved?


Format:                                                                Report

Word Count:                                      2,500 words[+/- 10%] to exclude visuals/ads/bibliography.

Submission:                                        Via Blackboard only. Your report will then be sent through the Turnitin system. Only then will your work be marked.

Project:                                                An analysis of an ad campaign of your choice. An ad campaign refers to a series of ads. Your report must have the Consumer Buying Process as a main theme.

Guidelines:                                         The ad campaign you choose must provide sufficient material for a full analysis

The campaign should have appeared across a range of platforms i.e. TV,Radio,Posters[Billboards],Online etc.

Sourcing: You will to need identify the media where the campaign appeared. It is not sufficient to source say, UTube –you must identify where the original campaign appeared.

The campaign may have an international application.  You can choose the campaign from your own country as long as you translate all elements.

Copies/visuals of the actual campaign must appear with your report.

Do read the Exemplar script. It will give you a good guide as to what is expected of an excellent Report.

Strongly recommend the use of “thumbnails” as visual support for your commentary throughout.

You may use the ad from your Formative assignment. Do understand that you will be using it for comparative purposes as part of a campaign.



Research Report


Applied Buyer Behavior: Ad comparison between Heineken Walk-In Closet and Carlsberg Dream Apartment 

Executive Summary

Beer has been consumed for a very long time and has been part of most societies. Beer comes third after water and tea as the most consumed drink, men being the major consumers. This means that beer has been accepted in most cultures in the current world. Heineken and Carlsberg are major players in the industry and are competing for customers. Advertisements have been modified to ensure that each company outdoes the other, absorb and retain customers (Goldammer, 2008). This report will analyze two ads, one from Heineken and the other from Carlsberg to bring out the idea of buyer behavior and how adverts are an important marketing tool.

The chosen ads are Heineken walk-in closet and Carlsberg dream apartment. Heineken’s walk-in closet features two gigantic walk-in closets first with closet with ladies’ clothes and fashion apparels, another one filled with Heineken beer, the closet filled with beer seems to outshine the other one filled with clothing as the men cheering and screaming outshines the ladies. On the other hand, Carlsberg’s dream apartment features an apartment with everything a man can wish for, from a female chef to a bedroom overlooking a football pitch. The report will provide an insight of the two ads, their similarities and differences, segmentation, perception, buyer behavior, the marketing mix as well as motivation factors. Recommendations will also be given at the end of the report to ensure that the two companies gain from their advertisements.


Beer industry requires heavy advertising so as to remain competitive in the market. Both Heineken and Carlsberg have enjoyed a huge competitive edge due to their cost and differentiation (Goldammer, 2008). They are among the leading breweries in the world, Heineken coming third and Carlsberg fourth. They are investing a lot in advertising to attract customers and retain them. For the purpose of this analysis, two adverts, each from both companies will be used and analyzed to explore several aspects regarding their customer relations.

Heineken walk-in closet and Carlsberg dream apartment were picked for analysis. Heineken walk-in closet features a luxurious home with a party in progress. Most of the attendants are young men likely in their 30s and are well dressed; they are taking alcohol that is not revealed clearly to the viewers. The hostess takes three of her friends around, and they come to a walk in closet filled with clothes and other fashion apparels, the ladies are marveled with the sight. Right then, noises from another room, men were shouting and cheering interrupts the women’s joyous moment. Four men, assumed to be the host and his friends, also walk into a gigantic closet filled with Heineken beer (Kaey, 2012). Their noises attract the attention of the ladies who look in a more perplexed manner, with the advert ending with Heineken’s logo and a statement, “Heineken, give yourself a good name.”

Carlsberg dream apartment also features a man, also about his 30s, looking for an apartment; he enters one he picked from a newspaper. On entering, he is welcomed by a lady and a man also about his 30s shows him around, a female chef is cooking and seems to be strict with her stove; another lady is bored perusing channels but is marveled by a football channel. He is led into a room with a balcony overlooking a football stadium, Carlsberg beer is served as they watch football. The commercial ends with a lady reading a novel to the man and the narrator states, “Carlsberg don’t do flatmates, but if they did they would probably be the best in the world.” The company’s statement also appears, “Carlsberg, probably the best lager in the world” (Gavin, 2006)


Heineken’s ad has used luxurious setting, the apartment, the dressing and the huge closets. The ad targets the rich, those who can afford that kind of luxurious life (Yang, 2012). Ladies were marveled by clothing and fashion while men are excited by Heineken beer. This implies that the ad targeted men who are the main consumers of beer. 80% of the market share is made up of men as indicated by The Brewer’s Handbook (Goldammer, 2008). All the characters in the ad are in their 30s, meaning that the target group is mostly those within that age bracket.

Figure 1: Walk-In Closet fridge with Heineken beer. Heineken targets young and wealthy individuals.

On the other hand, Carlsberg’s dream apartment doesn’t seem that posh, there is no evidence of luxurious items. The chef is said to be a trainee, meaning that she hasn’t started earning that much. The ad targets individuals with just enough extra income to spend on the drinks, the middle class. Football is also being used to attract football fans. This move will favor clubs and pubs with screens where fans can watch football while taking beer.  Both men and women participated in taking the beer, meaning that the ad targeted men and women; age was also set in the same bracket of 30 and 40 years as depicted by the characters.


Heineken’s ad has utilized the stereotype of men and women. Women were overjoyed by the sight of clothes and beauty products, and men were amazed by the sight of Heineken beer. It has portrayed that beer symbolizes masculinity while fashion and beauty represent femininity (Holland Pass, 2015). Heineken’s message in this ad can be concluded that men’s happiness lies on beer just as women enjoy clothing and fashion.

Carlsberg’s ad associates its beer to football and social ties. Woman watching football and balcony overlooking a football pitch shows that a man will have all the hyper-realities he can ever dream of in an apartment. The hot woman was cooking and another reading a novel show that they can fulfill their sexual desires while the football stadium expresses their love for sports (Hudd, 2015). Other hyper-realities used by Carlsberg is the control of weather to suit one’s dreams (Figure 2).

Figure 2: An ad on weather but still with hyper-realities.

Applied Buyer Behaviour

Applied buyer behavior analyzes methods one uses in trying to satisfy their needs, and how these methods affects them (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010). The buyer behavior has several elements that can be exploited by the companies to influence their buyer decisions, and these two adverts hugely exploit these factors. Heineken Walk-In Closet has employed Tri-component Attitude Model to try and influence their buyers’ decisions. Tri-component involves three steps of affect, cognition and conation. Affect represents the feeling one has in having the product; cognition is the thinking associated with the product while conation is the response one undertakes to meet their needs. Heineken has been associated with luxurious life, meaning that their product maintains high quality and value. A consumer is made to think and feel young and rich at the same time insinuating that the beer belongs to men, not women (Dudovskiy, 2013). Figure 3 shows the Tri-Component Attitude Model







Figure 3: Tri-Component Attitude Model

Carlsberg exploits the Five Stage Model (Figure 4) to influence their customers (McCarthy, 1964). The stages include recognition of a need, which has been depicted by a young man looking for an apartment, and then he looks for relevant information, as shown by the newspaper he has. The third stage will be to compare the alternatives, which he has done with the markings on the newspaper and when he comes to the Carlsberg apartment, he experiences features not available in the other choices. Purchase and post-purchase stages can be seen on the level of satisfaction the man has as he goes to sleep.



Figure 4, Five Stage Model

Market Mix

Heineken walk-in closet and Carlsberg dream apartment have utilized three of the 7Ps of the marketing mix. These are discussed below.


The product, Heineken beer has been shown to maintain high quality and value. The closet is also filled with the beer, meaning that they are highly available. The joy experienced by the men in the sight of the beer shows that the product is highly demanded in the market. Carlsberg has used the satisfaction of human needs to show how their product satisfies their customers. Even though the two ads do not concentrate much on their products, they have used the concept of identity to influence their customers (Bitner and Booms, 1981, p. 48).


Promotions have helped Heineken in acquiring a huge market share and boost their brand recognition. The walk-in closet ad has used pathos and logos to capture the attention of their customers. The advert has a strong pathos depicted in the form of humor where men express high actions and emotions creates a humorous and amusing feeling that will be taken positively by the viewers. Carlsberg also uses a hyper-realism approach in its ad to communicate aspects of their brand (Hoyer and Macinnis, 2008). Carlsberg advertises their product mainly on a football fanatic view that is a good promotion tool considering that most young people recognize themselves with football. These ads have been posted on social sites, TV stations and online platforms like YouTube to reach a wider range of market segments.  These platforms are widely accessible, and because age limit exists in alcohol consumption, the use of men in their mid-30s ensures that minors are not affected by the advertisements.


The pricing of both Heineken and Carlsberg products has not been clearly depicted in their ads; this can be assumed to be high pricing that may shy away customers (Tracy, 2004). However, the price mix of Heineken beer can still be easily traced on this ad; the luxurious house, the gigantic closets the parties and the well-dressed individuals depict that the pricing of Heineken beer is high and affordable by the rich. Carlsberg dream also had some level of hidden price technique, but considering that the apartment didn’t look that luxurious, the female chef was a trainee, and they all had a common room shows that their prices may not be that high.


The two ads show different levels of motivation; Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs will be used to show how these two products lies in different levels of satisfaction as shown in their ads.

Figure 5: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Heineken walk-in closets as explained before has been done in a posh environment; the characters seem to have all they need and have already fulfilled their belonging level of satisfaction evident by the party attendants and the friends they have. This ad, therefore, places their product at the level of esteem and self-actualization. The lady wants to show her friends how she has filled her closet, a gigantic closet, with fashion and beauty products, the man also shows his friends how he is well endowed with beer. Their luxurious life shows that they have anything they need and are on the level of self-actualization.

Carlsberg dream apartment places their consumers on the level of belongingness and self-esteem. As the young man is looking for an apartment, he is marveled by the mates he finds in the dream apartment; even the narrator points out that Carlsberg doing flatmates would be the best in the world. He, therefore, will be satisfied with the love and friendship he finds. The football stadium seems to satisfy his self-esteem needs with regards to his love for sports.



Critique and Recommendations

The two ads have successfully captured their viewers’ interest; they have managed to influence their decisions on buying their products and giving them easy time choosing from varieties in the market. However, some few areas need to be pointed out from their adverts. Heineken walk-in closet has sidelined the female population who are their customers. The ad shows that women only like fashion and beauty while men’s interest is on beer, this might be true as the markets research shows that 80% of beer consumers are male, and, therefore, have the excuse of concentrating on the larger population (Goldammer, 2008). But on another note, the 20% consumers made up of women counts a lot in a competitive environment where the products are not so much different, they should exploit in this niche not ventured by many due to its small number. This report recommends that the ad should integrate women with Heineken product; the walk-in closet, for example, should have the women join in for the celebration when they find men cheering on the drinks closet.

Carlsberg dream apartment integrates both male and female population to be their customers. But these women have been used as men’s toys and source of satisfaction (Kramer, 2011). Carlsberg adverts should exercise equity and show how men and women contribute to the success of their company. The ad also did not feature much on the rich with excess income to spend. The success of a product identifies the perfect target; Carlsberg is a premium product and should concentrate on the top individuals in the satisfaction level instead of competing with small brewers for the low and middle-income earners (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010).




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